APPLICATIONS OF RS/GIS TECHNIQUES IN GROUNDWATER DECONTAMINATION PARUL SHARMA AMITY SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY AMITY UNIVERSITY, MANESAR, HARYANA
POLLUTION-A PRIZE TAG OF MODERN SOCIETY POLYMERS DETERGENTS PLASTICS PAINTS HEAVY METALS FUELS CARCINOGENS DYES PESTICIDES SOLVENTS
Why worry about Ground Water Supplies? • Ground water • Major pathway into the body for contaminants • Easy to contaminate, difficult (costly) to remediate. • Extensive to transport.
ORIGIN OF GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATION CONTAMINATION Any physical, chemical, biological or radiological substance or matter that has an adverse effect on air, water or soil NON-POINT SOURCES (runoff from pesticides & fertilizers applications) POINT SOURCES (Radioactive waste disposal Sites Landfills, storage tanks, ENDOSULFAN EPISODE
LAND USE IMPACT ON GROUND WATER QUALITY ILLEGAL DUMPING ILLICIT DISCHARGE Contaminated groundwater may play a significant role in contaminating urban river system
The Challenge Using Geo-Spatial technique research to: • …Help clean up past environmental damage • …Correct present environmental problems • …Prevent future environmental impacts
OBJECTIVES • Identification and Risk Assessment by siting areas of groundwater contamination • Management of groundwater contamination by proper landfill siting. Shift from Conventional to Sophisticated techniques
COMPONENTS OF GEOSPATIAL TECHNIQUE Environmental Sustainability Economic Sustainability Scio political Sustainability
UTILIZATION OF GIS DATA GIS DATA ATTRIBUTE DATA GRAPHIC DATA VECTOR (tells about geographic location) SATELLITE (tells about multi-dimensional photographs GPS (tells about important landmarks
MULTI-CRITERIA DECESION MAKING ANALYSIS FAULT-LINE ELEVATION GROUND WATER TABLE LAND USE MCDM Analysis HABITATION GROUND WATER QUALITY LAND USE AIR QUALITY INDEX GEOLOGY
CASE STUDIES • Arsenic in Bangladesh • Love Canal Chemical Waste Dump (USA) • Cadmium (Epidemics in Japan)
ARSENIC IN BANGLADESH • 20% of the countries wells affected • 900,000 of the country's four million tubewells were sunk with UNICEF assistance • Estimated that the number of people exposed to arsenic concentrations above 0.05 mg/l is 28-35 million (more than 0.01 mg/l is 46-57 million) (BGS, 2000) • Long-term exposure to arsenic via drinking-water causes cancer of the skin, lungs, urinary bladder, and kidney, as well as other skin changes such as pigmentation changes and thickening. ARSENIC:THE KING OF POISION [USEPA, 2009]
Arsenic in Drinking Water in the US • Setting the Standard • 2008: California toxicologist argues that US EPA standard for As in drinking water would constitute a 1:100 risk of cancer for lifetime consumption
LOVE CANAL EPISODE • Landfill near Niagara Fall, New York. • Hooker Chemicals & Plastics Corporation put wastes in abandoned canal, covered it, deeded 16 acres to Niagara Falls Board of Education in 1953. • 1976-Chemicals leaking into basements, contaminating groundwater. • Environmental Emergency declared in 1978.
Cadmium (Cd) Epidemics Japan (1980s) • effluent (outflow) from a lead-processing plant washed over adjacent rice paddies for many years • rice accumulated high level of Cd • community was poor (and therefore malnourished with respect to calcium) • acute toxicity: renal failure,anemia, severe muscle pain • named "Itai-Itai" disease ("ouch, ouch") Itai-itai victim
CONCLUSION • Today's GIS produces intelligent, relevant, and useful spatial (3D)information that achieves critical response missions. First responders deserve nothing less. • The need of the hour is to have scientifically designed landfill system in Indian cities so that ground water can be protected from being polluted. • GIS, a powerful risk assessment tool, is cost effective and can successfully mitigate and manage the problem of groundwater contamination
END NOTE If a picture is worth a thousand words, then certainly an intelligent map is worth much more.
Come forth into the light of things, Let nature be your teacher William Wordsworth SAVE THE ENVIRONMENT