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Chinese Americans

Chinese Americans

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Chinese Americans

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Presentation Transcript

  1. Chinese Americans • Chinese immigration was met with mixed sentiments from 1848 onward • Chinese exclusion act of 1882 - 1943 • Gradual immigration from 1943 - 1965 • Increase in immigration came with the passage of the 1965 Immigration Act • Push and pull factors

  2. Occupational Profile of Chinese Americans • Early on discriminatory laws were passed making it difficult for Chinese to enter certain occupations • Early on gravitated toward service occupations or low paying jobs that whites found undesirable • Chinatown and the tourist industry

  3. Occupational Profile of Chinese Americans • Chinatown and the tourist industry • Jobs • New immigrants find it difficult finding jobs outside of Chinatown • Lack of English is another reason for new immigrants seeking work in Chinatown

  4. Chinatowns Today • The economic paradox of Chinatowns • The impression of glitter and wealth among hidden economic deprivation and poverty in Chinatown • Organizational life • Clan or tsu organization and functions (Surname Association) • Membership based on clan and family ties

  5. Organization • Benevolent associations or hui kuan (organization based on kinship ties) • Assist in the adjustment to a new country • Membership is based on district of origin • Hui kuan associations are part of a larger organization, Chinese Six Companies, (Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association) • Tongs or secret societies formed on the basis of common interests

  6. Conclusions about Social Organizations • Evolved from Chinese traditions and customs • All three types have performed similar functions providing assistance and representing interests to dominant group • Inter-conflict between the associations • Decline in significance • Downplay their problems within the Chinese community with the dominant group

  7. Social Problems • The tourist industry in Chinatown as double edged sword • Jobs but at substandard pay • Poverty • Health • Suicide • Poor housing • Crime • Poor working conditions • Other

  8. Family and Religious Life • In the People’s Republic of China organized religion barely exists • Buddhism • Christianity • Other faiths • Variation of acculturation on Chinese family structure • Less acculturated the greater the emphasis on extended family and patriarchal authority • Effect of immigration on family structure

  9. Japanese Americans • Initial Japanese immigrants came around 1885 (Push and pull factors) • Came from a very stratified society • Most came from the lower class in Japan • Initially many found employment in forestry, agriculture and then migrated to cities along the West Coast and established small businesses

  10. Generational Identity • Issei - first generation immigrants born in Japan • Nissei - second generation American born children of the Issei • (Kibei) • Sansei - third generation • Yonsei - fourth generation

  11. Early Discrimination • Laws were passed prohibiting Issei from becoming citizens • California Alien Land Act of 1913 • Economic impact on agricultural land owned by Japanese Americans • Adjustments to the act led many to transfer ownership to their American born children • Many left agriculture and migrated to cities and established small businesses catering to both the Japanese and dominant group

  12. Wartime Evacuation • Executive order 9066, signed by Roosevelt on February 13, 1942 • Economic cost to the evacuees was in excess of $400,000,000 or in current dollars $3.7 billion • Psychological impact • The way out and the loyalty test

  13. Wartime Evacuation • Ambiguity of the test questions • Japanese Americans demonstrated their loyalty to the United States by participating in the war effort • Racism and internment • Japanese migration from the camps after the war

  14. Economic Picture • Upward mobility after WWII • Japanese American educational attainment is higher than whites • Occupationally have been upwardly mobile but still experience the glass ceiling and wall • Higher median family income than whites

  15. Family and Religious Life • Acculturation and change in family structure • Conjugal nuclear family structure • Neolocal pattern of residence • Outgroup marriage is increasing and is approximately 50% among the Yonsei • Rising divorce rate

  16. Family and Religious Life • Dual religious customs in Japan • Shinto • Buddhism • United States the emphasis is on belonging to a single religion • Impact is changing religious customs over time among Japanese-Americans

  17. Remnants of Prejudice and Discrimination • The decline in overt prejudice • Subtle forms still exist • Job discrimination • Assimilation

  18. Figure 13-2 Intergroup Relations Continuum