Warmup • In terms of political science what is a minority? • How does being a minority impact ones political participation and efficacy? C) Why has the nation become more diverse since the 1950s. D) How have the nation’s politics become more inclusive. How are the still exclusive.
I. Minorities • In political terms a minority group is a group that lacks political power. (may or may not be a numerical minority) • The 1787 Constitution was explicitly intended not to apply to Blacks and Indians. -What evidence supports this?
I. Minorities • In political terms a minority group is a group that lacks political power. (may or may not be a numerical minority) • The 1787 Constitution was explicitly intended not to apply to Blacks and Indians. -What evidence supports this? C. Dred Scott v. Sanford. Slaves are not citizensand not entitled to the protections in the Constitution.
D) The equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment provides the basis of the Civil Rights Movement. 1. Despite its passage many states continued to practice de jureand de facto segregation. 2. In Plessey v. Ferguson the Supreme Court ruled that Separate but equal was not a violation of the 14th Amendment.
II. African Americans • Although the Supreme Court made several favorable decisions in the 1940s and 1950s the other branches of government were not enforcing them. • Because minority groups lacked access to the agenda setting process they had to create events to force the other branches to act. Examples: Montgomery Bus Boycotts, The Freedom Rides, Birmingham boycotts and protest, Little Rock Nine.
C) The federal Courts were the most aggressive part of government supporting civil rights. Examples: Brown v. Board of Education Browder v. Gayle Why did the Courts act first?
C) The federal Courts were the most aggressive part of government supporting civil rights. Examples: Brown v. Board of Education Browder v. Gayle Why did the Courts act first? How did these ruling impact federalism?
D. Results of Movement • Civil Rights Act of 1964- Ended discrimination in “public” facilities. • Voting Rights Act of 1965- Created federal oversight of elections in states with a history of disenfranchisement. • Civil Rights Act of 1968- made discriminatory practices in real estate illegal. * Shelby County V Holder (2013)- The Supreme Court voted in a 5-4 decision that the formula used to determine which precincts need federal oversight is out of date and can longer be used. There will be no more federal oversight unless Congress develops a new formula. Since the ruling several states have moved to adopt voter ID laws.
III. Women • Seneca Falls Convention (1848) 1. Beginning of the fight for equality a. The Declaration of Sentiments and resolutions for women’s rights B. 19th Amendment (1920)- Enfranchised women.
B. In the 1960s the movement gained momentum. 1. The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) passed Congress but failed to be ratified by 3/4 the states. 2. NOW (National Organization for Women) became a powerful interest group.
3) Equal pay act of 1963 required employers to pay men and women the same wage for doing the same job. 4) Lilly Ledbetter Act- Allows lawsuits to be filed against employers when discrimination occurred regardless of when the discrimination first happened.