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Educational Research: Introduction to the Concept

Educational Research: Introduction to the Concept. EDU 8603 Educational Research Richard M. Jacobs, OSA, Ph.D. Research. The systematic application of a family of methods employed to provide trustworthy information about problems.

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Educational Research: Introduction to the Concept

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  1. Educational Research: Introduction to the Concept EDU 8603 Educational Research Richard M. Jacobs, OSA, Ph.D.

  2. Research... • The systematic application of a family of methods employed to provide trustworthy information about problems …an ongoing process based on many accumulated understandings and explanations that, when taken together lead to generalizations about problems and the development of theories

  3. The basic steps of research... Scientific and disciplined inquiry is an orderly process, involving: recognition and identification of a topic to be studied (“problem”) description and execution of procedures to collection information (“method”) objective data analysis statement of findings (“results”)

  4. Types of research... Basic… …the process of collecting and analyzing information to develop or enhance a theory

  5. Applied… …conducted for the purpose of applying or testing theory and evaluating its usefulness for solving problems

  6. Evaluation… …concerned with making decisions about the quality, effectiveness, or value of programs, products, or practices

  7. The research continuum… field laboratory evaluation research pure research APPLIED BASIC current problems theory development what works why it works produces concepts provides data

  8. Approaches to reasoning... Inductive… …developing generalizations from a limited number of specific observations or experiences …highly dependent on the number and representativeness of the specific observations used to make the generalization

  9. Deductive… …developing specific predictions from general principles, observations, or experiences …dependent on the truth of the generalizations used as a basis for its logic

  10. Relating reasoning with research methods… laboratory work field work evaluation research pure research QUALITATIVE QUANTITATIVE researcher intersubjectivity researcher objectivity post-structuralism: depth logical positivism: factual “snapshot” “portrait”

  11. Research methods... Quantitative… …collects and analyzes numerical data obtained from formal instruments

  12. Qualitative… …collects and analyzes nonnumeric data over an extended period of time to situate meaning within a particular perspective or context

  13. Quantitative methods... • descriptive research (“survey research”) • correlational research • causal-comparative research (“ex post facto research”) • experimental research

  14. descriptive research (“survey research”) …collects data in order to answer questions about the current status of the subject or topic of study …uses formal instruments to study preferences, attitudes, practices, concerns, or interests of a sample

  15. correlational research …determines whether and to what degree a relationship exists between two or more variables …the presence of a correlation does not indicate a cause-effect relationship primarily due to multiple confounding factors

  16. Correlation coefficient (r)… -1.00 0.00 +1.00 strong positive strong negative no relationship

  17. A positive correlationship… y x

  18. A negative correlationship… y x

  19. No correlationship… y x

  20. No correlationship… y x

  21. causal-comparative research (“ex post facto research”) …at least two different groups are compared on a dependent variable or measure of performance (called the “effect”) because the independent variable (called the “cause”) has already occurred or cannot be manipulated

  22. Variable... …a concept (e.g., intelligence, height, aptitude) that can assume any one of a range of values

  23. Research variables... Independent… …an activity or characteristic believed to make a difference with respect to some behavior …(syn.) experimental variable, cause, treatment

  24. Dependent… …the change or difference occurring a a result of the independent variable …(syn.) criterion variable, effect, outcome, posttest

  25. experimental research …the researcher selects participants and divides them into two or more groups having similar characteristics and, then, applies the treatment(s) to the groups and measures the effects upon the groups

  26. Quantitative method decision tree… Is there a cause-effect relationship? YES NO Is the independent variable manipulated? Is there a relationship or prediction being made? YES NO YES NO Experimental Causal-Comparative Correlational Descriptive

  27. Qualitative methods... • historical research • grounded theory • ethnography • phenomenology • ethology • case study • ethnomethodology • action research • symbolic interaction

  28. historical research …studies available data to study, understand, and interpret past events

  29. ethnography …studies cultural patterns and perspectives of participants in their natural settings

  30. ethology …compares the origins, characteristics, and culture of different societies

  31. ethnomethodology …studies how people make sense of their everyday activities in order to behave in socially accepted ways

  32. symbolic interaction …investigates how people construct meaning and shared perspectives by interacting with others

  33. grounded theory …investigates how inductively-derived theory about phenomenon is grounded in the data of a particular setting

  34. phenomenology …considers how the experience of particular participants exhibits a unique perspective

  35. case study …examines the characteristics of a particular entity, phenomenon, or person

  36. action research …practitioner-based systematic reflection upon practice aimed at improving professional practice

  37. Generally speaking, qualitative researchers…. …spend a great deal of time in the settings being studied (fieldwork) …rely on themselves as the main instrument of data collection (subjectivity; intersubjectivity) …analyze data using interpretative lenses

  38. …employ expressive language and voice in descriptions and explanations …seek depth of perspective (i.e., “waves of data” requiring ongoing interpretation) …judged in terms of believability, trustworthiness, coherence, and logic of interpretations

  39. Types of criticism... Internal… …evaluates the worth or trustworthiness of the content of the data External… …assesses the authenticity of the data source

  40. data sources… …primary …secondary …tertiary

  41. Limitations of the scientific and disciplined inquiry approach… • not able to investigate philosophical and/or moral/ethical problems (“shoulds” and “oughts”) only factual matters • the presence of intervening and confounding variables make assertions probable rather than proven • imperfections in sampling, instruments, procedures

  42. Mini-Quiz… • Identify the research methodology… …a study of the research on the effect of anxiety on achievement from 1900 to 1990 historical

  43. …a study of the effect of socioeconomic status on self-concept causal-comparative

  44. …a study to compare the achievement of two groups: one group taught in an anxiety-producing environment and one group taught in an anxiety reducing environment experimental

  45. …a study of the personal and educational interactions in a group of teachers developing social studies standards for a high school curriculum qualitative

  46. …a study to compare the achievement of a group of students classified as high-anxious and a group classified as low-anxious causal-comparative

  47. …a study of teachers’ attitudes toward unions historical

  48. …a study of the effect of large-group versus small-group instruction upon achievement experimental

  49. …a study of SAT preparation by three students, with particular emphasis on their anxiety qualitative

  50. …a study to determine the relationship between scores on an anxiety scale and scores on an achievement measure correlational

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