English through music: effective CLIL lessons for young learners Jane Willis (ELT specialist) Anice Paterson (music specialist)
OVERVIEW What potential does Content & Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) have for language development? Why is music particularly suited to CLIL? What kinds of musical activities are there? (with brief demonstrations of some of them) How can you ensure these music activities fulfil conditions that are likely to promote language learning? What about another Content area?
Content & Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) Learning a subject through English provides young learners with: • exposure to spoken English • a clear purpose for listening to English and trying to understand • a context for using English • a reason for reading and writing
Music through English?or English through music?Why music and English together?
Singing is an excellent way for children to • learn and memorise words and phrases • develop familiarity with the sounds, rhythms and stress of English
Songs, rhymes and rhythm activities help children to • learn to listen carefully – with a real purpose • respond to the ranges in tone, pitch, and expression in the voice • concentrate hard on small details of pronunciation, stress and rhythm
Musical pictures and musical stories help children to • experiment and use the qualities of sounds effectively • express their feelings • recognise the structure of stories and poems and to sequence ideas • talk about what they are doing and why • tell and perform their own stories
Rehearsing and giving musical performances • provides children with a real purpose for developing and practising their English • helps children to develop self-confidence - in using English in a range of contexts - in performing with control and expressiveness • keeps children motivated and excited by their experience of making music Also, NFER has evidence of beneficial effects on general behaviour and learning skills
Recorded in a class of 9 year-olds who have various sound-makers listen to the story, bit by bit, and suggest sounds for each action perform the whole story, with sounds create variations CD 55 First of all, I want you to imagine that there’s a huge giant and he’s eating his dinner at his table. Can you make eating sounds? And on the door there’s a tap tap tap tap… Can you repeat that rhythm for me? Keep it going – tap tap tap tap… The giant stands up and slowly walks to the door The giant story
The enormous carrot Teacher with five-year-olds
Musical skills Experimenting with sounds Creating sound patterns Remembering a sequence Performing a piece Creating variations Language development Exposure to story text & to teacher talk that engages attention (imperatives, repetitions, on-going commentary) Opportunities for participatory use of language So what are they learning?
What kinds of music activities are there? These activities cover musical objectives that appear in any typical music syllabus. A Warm-up activities ‘Listen and Do’ – physical and vocal exercises to prepare children for music making and to develop their co-ordination, voice control, and pronunciation.
Some examples (all on CD) ‘Stretch, shake and wiggle ‘Pat your head and rub your tummy’ Baby 1, 2, 3 Physical warm-ups
Vocal warm-ups Breath control: snakes, bees, humming Musical vowels: sirens, scales Consonant patterns: slow - ping pong; fast - ch ch ch ch Voice expression: Boom chicka boom
BListening and experimenting with sounds • Hands and feet CD15 (Body Percussion) • Let’s make a band (Sound-makers)
Action songs & rhymes Section C (minimal language) • The Rocket Rhyme Count down, count down, rocket leaving soon Count down, count down, leaving for the moon 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 Blast off! Section F(more language) • There’s a tiny caterpillar on a leaf
A Rhythm Grid Some very small creatures ‘OK, Let’s start with a steady beat….. a very quiet beat.. Keep it going… Now listen
D Rhythm games & patterns Clap it back (fruit, vocabulary sets) Pop Spider Ant (small creatures, party food) Language and music aims: Syllable stress in words and phrases Performing layered patternings (in parts)
E Listening and responding to music • How long does it last? (instrument sounds) • I like it (different styles, images, moods, countries) CD 40 • Let’s dance Children hear about where the music is from, think what it could be about, express how the music makes them feel...
Composing and performing class music G Story-based music • Musical books (any story) • The giant • The enormous carrot (growing food and farm animals) H Musical pictures • Rainstorm (tropical climate) • Where shall we go today? (zoo, market…)
Activity Page • LANGUAGE • MUSIC • RESOURCES AND PREPARATION • TIME GUIDE AGE ……………………………………… • Activity (numbered steps and suggestions for what to say in English). • Variations (ideas for other similar musical activities) • Language extensions
Language extensions Suggestions for building on the language used in the activity: • same music aims but new context or song • mini-dialogues for intonation work • games for vocabulary revision e.g. miming • tongue twisters • follow-up chats / discussions • mini-projects with cross-curricula links.
Questions • How does this fit my English syllabus? • Are the activities graded? • How to use the CD? • Musical expertise? Teacher support?
What language learning opportunities do these CLIL lessons provide? Four main sources 1. general classroom management and instructions 2. the language used to introduce the topic, to set up the music activity itself, to attain the music aims & lead to a musical performance
What language learning opportunities do these CLIL lessons provide? 3. the words and phonological features of the songs, rhymes, chants, stories, and mini-dialogues, 4. further development of specific language features and topic themes
And finally…the three most important things… • use the musical activity to generate opportunities to interact with the children in English • encourage children’s language and music development by being positive • make sure you all enjoy making music.
‘English Through Music’ Anice Paterson & Jane Willis OUP 2008 email@example.com