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Essentials of Marketing Research William G. Zikmund

Essentials of Marketing Research William G. Zikmund

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Essentials of Marketing Research William G. Zikmund

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  1. Essentials of Marketing ResearchWilliam G. Zikmund Chapter 14: Basic Data Analysis

  2. Tabulation • Frequency table • Percentages

  3. Measure of Central Measure of Type of Scale Tendency Dispersion Nominal Mode None Ordinal Median Percentile Interval or ratio Mean Standard deviation

  4. CROSS-TABULATION • Analyze data by groups or categories • Compare differences • Contingency table • Percentage cross-tabulations

  5. ELABORATION AND REFINEMENT • Moderator variable • Spurious relationship

  6. Data Transformation • A.K.A data conversion • Changing the original form of the data to a new format • More appropriate data analysis • New variables

  7. CALCULATING RANK ORDER • Ordinal data • Brand preferences

  8. TABLES • Bannerheads for columns • Studheads for rows

  9. Charts and Graphs • Pie charts • Line graphs • Bar charts • Vertical • Horizontal

  10. Line Graph

  11. Bar Graph

  12. WebSurveyor Bar Chart

  13. Computer Programs • SPSS • SAS • SYSTAT • Microsoft Excel • WebSurveyor

  14. Hypothesis • An unproven proposition or supposition that tentatively explains certain facts of phenomena • Null hypothesis • Alternative hypothesis

  15. Significance Level • Critical probability in choosing between the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis • Probability level selected is typically .05 or .01 • Too low to warrant support for the null hypothesis

  16. Testing A Hypothesis About A Mean

  17. The null hypothesis that the mean is equal to 3.0:

  18. The alternative hypothesis that the mean does not equal to 3.0:

  19. A Sampling Distribution m=3.0

  20. A Sampling Distribution a=.025 a=.025 m=3.0

  21. A Sampling Distribution UPPER LIMIT LOWER LIMIT m=3.0

  22. Critical values ofm Critical value - upper limit

  23. Critical values ofm

  24. Critical values ofm Critical value - lower limit

  25. Critical values ofm

  26. Region of Rejection LOWER LIMIT m=3.0 UPPER LIMIT

  27. Hypothesis Test m =3.0 2.804 3.78 m=3.0 3.196

  28. Type I and Type II Errors in Hypothesis Testing State of Null Hypothesis Decision in the Population Accept Ho Reject Ho Ho is true Correct--no error Type I error Ho is false Type II error Correct--no error

  29. Testing a Hypothesis about a Distribution • Chi-square test • Test for significance in the analysis of frequency distributions • Compare observed frequencies with expected frequencies • “Goodness of fit”

  30. Chi-Square Test

  31. Type of Measurement Type of descriptive analysis Frequency table Proportion (percentage) Frequency table Category proportions (percentages) Mode Two categories Nominal More than two categories

  32. Type of Measurement Type of descriptive analysis Ordinal Rank order Median

  33. Type of Measurement Type of descriptive analysis Interval Arithmetic mean