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# Essentials of Marketing Research William G. Zikmund

Essentials of Marketing Research William G. Zikmund. Chapter 14: Basic Data Analysis. Tabulation. Frequency table Percentages. Measure of Central Measure of Type of Scale Tendency Dispersion Nominal Mode None Ordinal Median Percentile

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## Essentials of Marketing Research William G. Zikmund

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1. Essentials of Marketing ResearchWilliam G. Zikmund Chapter 14: Basic Data Analysis

2. Tabulation • Frequency table • Percentages

3. Measure of Central Measure of Type of Scale Tendency Dispersion Nominal Mode None Ordinal Median Percentile Interval or ratio Mean Standard deviation

4. CROSS-TABULATION • Analyze data by groups or categories • Compare differences • Contingency table • Percentage cross-tabulations

5. ELABORATION AND REFINEMENT • Moderator variable • Spurious relationship

6. Data Transformation • A.K.A data conversion • Changing the original form of the data to a new format • More appropriate data analysis • New variables

7. CALCULATING RANK ORDER • Ordinal data • Brand preferences

9. Charts and Graphs • Pie charts • Line graphs • Bar charts • Vertical • Horizontal

10. Line Graph

11. Bar Graph

12. WebSurveyor Bar Chart

13. Computer Programs • SPSS • SAS • SYSTAT • Microsoft Excel • WebSurveyor

14. Hypothesis • An unproven proposition or supposition that tentatively explains certain facts of phenomena • Null hypothesis • Alternative hypothesis

15. Significance Level • Critical probability in choosing between the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis • Probability level selected is typically .05 or .01 • Too low to warrant support for the null hypothesis

16. Testing A Hypothesis About A Mean

17. The null hypothesis that the mean is equal to 3.0:

18. A Sampling Distribution a=.025 a=.025 m=3.0

19. A Sampling Distribution UPPER LIMIT LOWER LIMIT m=3.0

20. Critical values ofm Critical value - upper limit

21. Critical values ofm

22. Critical values ofm Critical value - lower limit

23. Critical values ofm

24. Region of Rejection LOWER LIMIT m=3.0 UPPER LIMIT

25. Hypothesis Test m =3.0 2.804 3.78 m=3.0 3.196

26. Type I and Type II Errors in Hypothesis Testing State of Null Hypothesis Decision in the Population Accept Ho Reject Ho Ho is true Correct--no error Type I error Ho is false Type II error Correct--no error

27. Testing a Hypothesis about a Distribution • Chi-square test • Test for significance in the analysis of frequency distributions • Compare observed frequencies with expected frequencies • “Goodness of fit”

28. Chi-Square Test

29. Type of Measurement Type of descriptive analysis Frequency table Proportion (percentage) Frequency table Category proportions (percentages) Mode Two categories Nominal More than two categories

30. Type of Measurement Type of descriptive analysis Ordinal Rank order Median

31. Type of Measurement Type of descriptive analysis Interval Arithmetic mean

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