Old People & Mental/Physical Handicapped Social Welfare Organizations Safety Control Standard Operation Procedure Examples Executive Entity: • Direct by: Deputy Director HUANG, Hong-mo • Reported by: Section Chief CHEN, Kuen-huang
Table of Contents • Disaster Situation • Disaster Prevention • Disaster Response • Post Disaster Investigation and Testing • Expected Objectives & Visions
Table 1: Fire Disasters in Old People & Mental/Physical Handicapped Social Welfare Organizations & Sanitaria in Japan Cases of Fire disasters in Old People & Mental/Physical Handicapped Organizations in Japan
Disaster Situation • A fire broke out due to alleged overheated electric appliance at 00:35 in early morning at a certain sanitarium located in Taipei County. • The fire started on the first floor of a 4-story RC condominium, connected to a steel frame flat without building license. • The sanitarium has not been duly registered, covering an area of 254 M2, provided with 33 wards. • The fire broke out from the first floor and the death was only more than 10 M away from the exit. • The fire took eleven lives and caused ten injuries.
No. Mobility Aids Description 1. Totally incapable to escape alone ----- For the senile people suffering chronic diseases and failing to leave bed without help, helping hand and time to be consumed shall be taken into consideration. 2. With the help of walking aid Other people, walking stick, walking helper…etc. 1. Capable of moving around with aid. 2. Though not depending on any aid, slow and difficult in moving. 3. Though not depending on any aid, help from other people is required when getting nervous in disaster situation. 3. Entirely relying upon walking aid Other people, wheelchair, etc. 1. Entirely relying upon aid, e.g. in a wheelchair. 2. Capable of lateral movement only, vertical movement is impossible. Characterization of the Old People’s Movement in Escaping from Disaster
Analysis of Escape Environment Requirements for Various Types of Handicapped Type of Handicapped Abilities of recognition and movement Requirements of barrier free environmental Conditions Requirements of Escape Conditions 1. Make available the emergency escape facilities. 2. Guide and help to permit deferred escape. 3. Fast and effective transmission of information. Mental Retard Intelligence Barrier Simple and readable signs or signals Visual Impedance Intelligence Barrier 1. Conspicuous signals 2. Signals transmitted via voice Movement Barrier 1. Less elevation difference 2. Less protrusions 3. More guide facilities 4. More space for operation of the walking stick 5. Simplified flow line system Audio Impedance Intelligence Barrier Use visual signs or signals to replace audio transmission Fast and effective transmission of information 1. Make available the emergency escape facilities. 2. Guide and help to permit deferred escape. 3. Fast and effective transmission of information. Physical Impedance Movement Barrier • Less elevation difference, more passage and operation space for wheelchair and walking stick. Motion Barrier More hand rest facilities, promotion facilities with allowing easier operation.
Multiple Impedance Visual, Hearing & Multiple Impedance Intelligence Barrier 1. Make available the emergency escape facilities. 2. Guide and help to permit deferred escape. 3. Fast and effective transmission of information. Analysis of Escape Environment Requirements for Various Types of Handicapped Type of Handicapped Abilities of recognition and movement Movement Barrier Requirements of barrier free environmental Conditions 1. Less elevation difference 2. Less protrusions 3. More guide facilities 4. More space for operation of the walking stick 5. Simplified flow line system Requirements of Escape Conditions Mental Retard, Physical Impedance, Cerebral Palsy Intelligence Barrier Simple and readable signs or signals Movement Barrier Less elevation difference, more space for operation and passage of the wheelchair walking stick, and Simplified flow line system Motion Barrier More hand rest facilities, promotion facilities with allowing easier operation.
Fire Safety Control & Strategy 1 • Active fire safety facilities in user friendly design • Passive building structure fire design • Continue improved fire safety inspection, and follow-up of monitor and control • Follow through fire control system • Fortify self-defense fire organization training 20 22
Fortifying self-defense fire organization training • Japan • The sanitarium and similar organizations shall enter into and maintain a mutual help system with the fire agency nearby, and install emergency fire alarm on-line system. • Singapore • Any special medical information provided by the families of the tenants or the doctors. • USA • Help the invalid to escape from the site of disaster by simulating the disaster situations during daytime or at night (e.g., fire disaster, explosion, earthquake, etc.) • UK • The care-taker in the rescuer groups shall receive escape training sessions at least twice each year. • The wheelchair user shall receive escape training session at least once a year.
Fire Safety Control & Strategies 2 • Follow through inspection and service declaration for review. • Improve building safety inspection and follow-up control. • Disclose building and fire safety information. • Promote insurance system (property insurance and life insurance). • Supervision and efficiency evaluation of fire prevention.
Disaster Prevention Functional Authorities --- Building Control Agency • Improve building safety inspection and follow-up control • Maintain fire escape facilities and equipment safety • Disclose build safety information • Promote fire insurance system • Follow through emergency evacuation safety program • Review building use and control • Control and restriction of number of invalid of accommodation • Fire load control
Disaster Prevention Functional Authorities --- Fire Agency • Continue to improve fire safety inspection and follow-up of monitor and control • Carry out fire safety equipment service declaration system • Carry out flame prevention system • Carry out fire control system • Improve self-defense fire organization training • Prevent arson to minimize personal injury and loss of life • Improve disaster prevention propaganda • Produce examples of joint fire protection program • Dedicated inspection team to be organized by local fire departments
Disaster Prevention Functional Authorities --- Social Administration Agency • Periodical visit by social worker • Maintain a certain ratio among nursing, social work and service workforces as required by care taking and control of the invalids • Control of number of invalid accommodated • Care-taker escape guide training and control • Barrier free space and facilities control
Central Disaster Prevention & Protection Communiqué(with Prime Minister as the Promoter) National Disaster Prevention & Protection Commission at Executive Yuan: Vice PM as Chairman CHR Center Full-time officials from Departments of Fire, Police Administration, Building & Construction, Land Administration, Social Affairs, and Military Service…etc. (Emergency Response) National Science Council (NSC) Others Environment Protection Administration (EPA) Ministry of Transportation and Communications (MOTC) Council of Agriculture (COA) Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA) Ministry of the Interior (MOI) Chairman of Disaster Prevention & Protection Advisory Commission Special Search and Rescue Squad, and training center Typhoon, earthquake, fire, explosion Flood, draught, gaseous fuel, power transmission Cold disaster, debris flow Disasters in air, on sea, and land traffic accidents Disaster Prevention & Protection regulating authorities designated by the Central Disaster Prevention & Protection Communiqué or as provided by the law Toxic chemical substance disaster Disaster Prevention & Protection Technology Center Disaster Prevention & Protection Research and advices National Army (as Backup) search and rescue organizations National Defense &Civil Defense Mobilization City Level Disaster Prevention Communiqué, Disaster Response Center Other local governments Rural Level Disaster Prevention Communiqué, Disaster Response Center non-government organizations including civil organizations and community organizations ) ) Fire Response Mechanism Flow Chart
Primer of Ministry Vice Primer of Ministry Minister without Portfolio (in charge of Disaster Prevention & Protection ) General Secretary Vice General Secretary Director ofPrimer of Ministry Office Head of Section 1 Heads of other Operation Sections Executive Yuan Executive Yuan Disaster Prevention & Protection Commission 02-2388-2505 9 02-23882119 Ext. Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOEA) Council of Agriculture (COA) Ministry of the Interior (MOI) Council of Labor Affairs (CLA) Ministry of Transportation and Communications (MOTC) Environment Protection Administration(EPA) Atomic Energy Council (AEC) Department of Health (DOH) 24H Media Monitor System Government Info Bureau Central Non Fire/Disaster Regulating Authorities Fire Department Central/local Non-Disaster Prevention & Protection Regulating Authorities or Central Agencies Central/local Disaster Prevention & Protection Regulating Authorities or Central Agencies Fire Bureau (119) of Local Government General Public Emergency Communication System
Commander (Divisional Leader, Squad Leader) Disaster Rescue Section (Squad Leader) Medical Section (Senior Member) Ambulance Section 1 Fire Engine Section 1 Fire Engine Section 2 Ambulance Section 2 Fire Incidence Command System (ICS)Initial Response 1
Commander (Deputy Captain) Second in Command (Divisional Leader) Plan Coordination Section Disaster Rescue Section (Divisional Leader) Medical Section (Divisional Leader) Alert Control Section (Head of Precinct) Ambulance Sec. 1 Fire Engine Sec. 1 Security Maintenance Squad Fire Engine Sec. 2 Ambulance Sec. 2 Security Maintenance Squad Fire Incidence Command System (ICS)Initial Response 2
Commander (Commissioner of Fire Bureau) Second in Command a/s Spokesman (Deputy Commissioner) Plan Coordination Section (Captain) Disaster Rescue Section (Fire Deputy Captain) Shelter & Remedy Section (Chief of Social Bureau) Logistics Finance Section (Director of Secretary Office) Medical Section (Divisional Leader) Alert Control Section (Head of Precinct) Ambulance Sec. 1 Consumer Products Supply Unit Fire Engine Sec. 1 Refugees Service Unit Security Maintenance Unit Fire Engine Sec. 2 Mental Consulting Unit Ambulance Sec. 2 Response Logistics Unit Traffic Control Unit Fire Extension Response
Commander (Deputy Mayor) Second in Command a/s Spokesman (Deputy General Secretary) Plan Coordination Section (Fire Commissioner) Resources Control Unit Disaster Rescue Section (Fire Deputy Captain) Shelter & Remedy Section (Chief of Social Bureau) Logistics Finance Section (Director of Secretary Office) Medical Section (Med Station) Alert Control Section (Head of Precinct) Consumer Products Supply Unit Security Maintenance Unit Ambulance Sec. Fire Units Refugees Service Unit Mental Consulting Unit Med Ambulance Sec. 2 Response Logistics Unit Police Fire Squad Military Police Search Squad Power Units Traffic Control Unit Police Military Police Expanded Response 1
Commander (Deputy Mayor) Second in Command a/s Spokesman (Deputy General Secretary) News Sec. News Release Center Plan Coordination Section (Fire Commissioner) Disaster Analysis Unit Resources Control Unit Disaster Rescue Section (Fire Deputy Captain) Shelter & Remedy Section (Chief of Social Bureau) Logistics Finance Section (Director of Secretary Office) Medical Section (Med Station) Alert Control Section (Head of Precinct) Consumer Products Supply Unit Security Maintenance Unit Ambulance Sec. Fire Units Refugees Service Unit Med Ambulance Sec. 2 Mental Consulting Unit Police Fire Squad Charities Military Police Search Squad Casualty Handling Unit Response Logistics Unit Traffic Control Unit Power Units Police Public Utilities Military Police Telecom Tap Water Gas Unit Expanded Response 2
Post Investigation & Testing • Fire Investigation Procedure • Case report handling and attendance, midway observation, arrival observation and enquiry • Locking out and preserve the site of incidence, site investigation, producing the report and case submittal • Investigation of characterization of escape by the old people and the mental/physical handicapped • Investigation of the design of active and passive fire facilities • Investigation of self-defense organization and training • Investigation of barrier free environment and facilities • Investigation of the ratios of users, controllers and tenants
Expected Objectives • Short-range • Following through implementation of the existing rules and regulations, and promotion of preventive system • Insurance system • User control • Control of number of tenants • Mid-range • Improving community organization and training • Upgrading fire facilities levels • Medical features for mental/physical health of the invalid and adaptation of fire and escape designs • Long-range • Amending the fire facilities specification taking features of the old people and the mental/physical handicapped into consideration • Vision • Creating user-friendly fire design and barrier free space
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Entrance parts Protection (reinforced fabric at bottom) Tube Handle Stretching rope Guide rope Lower support Fixation box Weight (sand belt or equivalent) Inclined descending type 2 • Design of Escape Guide Lamp • Larger guide lamps • Flaring guide lamps (for audio impedance) • Guide lamps with voice (for visual impedance) • Alarm Design • Installation of real-time broadcasting communication system (to announce the location of provisional safety escape area) • Shorten the range to access to the installation of manual alarm system(Physical Impedance) • Design of Associate Evacuation Facilities • Life Belt • Escape Slide Deck
Apparatus Impedance Multiple Physical Vision Mental Audio 1.Life Bag ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 2.Slide Deck ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 3.Escape Bridge Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ 4. Slow Descending Machine Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ 5.Escape Ladder X X X ※ ※ 6.Escape Rope & Slide Post X X X X X Comparison of Feasibilities of Various Types of Escape Apparatus return
1. Additional iron gate in stairways, grill not locked 2. Public facilities (elevating system fails) Outside the Sanitarium 3. Iron window or cabinet blocking emergency exit 4. Absence or limited space of escape deck Factors of Nonconformity 1. Changed partition 2. Damaged fire zoning Inside the Sanitarium 3. Absence of non-flammable/fire withstanding materials Certificate 4. Corridor too narrow 5. Conflict against barrier free facilities Nonconformities Frequently Identified during Public Safety Inspection
Horizontal Escape Area Planning • Two-way escape routes • Provisional escape area • Escape area provided with safety facilities (balcony, front room, escape deck, and planning of relative safety area) • Minimizing accumulation of smokes by ventilation system or forced containment methods (smoke control) • Increase vertical escape passages (to secure the safety with a positive pressure belt by taking advantage of pressure difference of the emergency elevator) • Prevent higher floor and lower the use intensity • Escape plan • Barrier free building escape flow line facilities • More time permitted for escape return