SSUSH 25: The student will describe changes in national politics since 1968. • Describe President Richard M. Nixon's opening of China, his resignation due to the Watergate scandal, changing attitudes toward government, and the Presidency of Gerald Ford. • Explain the impact of Supreme Court decisions on ideas about civil liberties and civil rights; include such decisions as Roe v. Wade (1973) and the Bakke decision on affirmative action.
Continued… • Explain the Carter administration’s efforts in the Middle East; include the Camp David Accords, his responses to the 1979 Iranian Revolution, and the Iranian hostage crisis. • Describe domestic and international events of Ronald Reagan’s presidency; include Reaganomics, the Iran-contra scandal, and the collapse of the Soviet Union.
Continued… • Explain the relationship between Congress and President Bill Clinton; include the North American Free Trade Agreement and his impeachment and acquittal. • Analyze the 2000 presidential election and its outcome, emphasizing the role of the electoral college.
Continued… • Analyze the response of President George W. Bush to the attacks of September 11, 2001, on the United States, the war against terrorism, and the subsequent American interventions in Afghanistan and Iraq.
President Richard Nixon’s opening of China • 1971 Nixon reversed policy of U.S. not recognizing Communist China by visiting to “seek normalization” • Resulted in opening of diplomatic and economic relations • Agreed to settle future disputes peacefully
Nixon’s resignation due to the Watergate scandal • Nixon attempted to cover up burglary of Democratic National Headquarters @ Watergate Office Complex in D.C. • Sought Re-election by any means necessary: led to attempt to steal information • Washington Post reporters: Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein: exposed details of cover-up • Discovered Nixon’s conversations had been taped • Tapes revealed 18and one-half minute gap • 1973: “I am not a crook” speech • 1974: recommended for impeachment; led to resignation
Presidency of Gerald Ford • Granted Nixon full pardon (so he could focus on governing) • Sought to restore faith in America’s leaders • WIN: “Whip Inflation Now!” • “Tight Money Policy” led to recession • Continued Nixon’s policies in China and Soviet Union • Helsinki Accords: 1975: agreement between 35 nations: promised greater cooperation between Western and Eastern European countries (including Soviet Union)
Changing American AttitudesToward Government • Distrust of government • “Watergate Effect” • Vietnam War Effect • Disillusionment of “imperial” presidency with too much power • RESULT: cynicism toward ALL public officials
Impact of Supreme Court decisions • Supreme Court Decisions since 1968 have greatly affected American life and culture • Roe v. Wade 1973 (abortion) • Regents of the University of California v. Bakke 1978 (affirmative action)
Roe v. Wade (1973) • Abortion • Controversial • Feminist position: “ right to abortion” and “control over own body” • Pro-Choice = “women should have right to abortion in first three months of pregnancy” • Pro-Life = “life begins at conception” • Issue divides America today • Abortion restrictions vary from state to state
Bakke decision on affirmative action: 1978 • Allan Bakke sued for admission to Univ. CA Med school • Had been denied because of race • Quota reserved 16 of 100 places for minorities • Q: Are “affirmative action” plans constitutional? • Ruled unconstitutional the use of fixed quotas for minority applicants • Court outlawed quota programs on the grounds that they violated the equal-protection clause of the Constitution; it allowed colleges to use race as a factor in making college admissions decisions. • RESULT: Schools can consider race as “ONE” factor in admission decisions to achieve a diverse student body
The Carter Administration • Promise: restore integrity to nation’s highest office • Failed to build working relationship with Congress • Doomed budget proposals • Energy and Economic Crisis • Problem: reliance on imported oil • 1977: urged “cut consumption of gas and oil”
Carter • National Energy Act: tax on gas-guzzling cars and tax credits for developers of alternative energy • 1979: Inflation @ 14 % • Goal: Foreign Policy committed to HUMAN RIGHTS with morality as guide • Détente: easing of tension between nations; collapsed between U.S. and Soviets
Camp David Accords: 1978 • Middle East tensions = issue for centuries • Carter desired to help forge peace between Egypt and Israel • Anwar el-Sadat: Egypt • Menachem Begin: Israel • Presidential retreat @ Camp David, MD • RESULT: Israel agreed to withdraw from Sinai Peninsula taken in 1967 war • Egypt agreed to formally recognize Israel’s right to exist
1979 Iranian Revolution and Iranian hostage crisis • 1979 Revolution: Ayatollah Khomeini; Muslim religious leader led overthrow of Shah of Iran accused of corruption • Est. religious state based on Islam • Shah allowed to enter U.S. for cancer treatment - infuriated rebels who then seized U.S. embassy taking 52 hostages • Demanded Shah; standoff lasted 444 days
Domestic events of Ronald Reagan’s presidency • Conservative policies • Appointment of conservative S.C. Justices • “Reaganomics” supply-side economics to address recession • Decreased regulation of industry • Increased defense spending: SDI “Strategic Defense Initiative” = STAR WARS • Increased National Debt
Major economic theory Reduce size and influence of government to encourage private investment Reduce taxes (25 % over three years) Reduce government spending (social programs) Reaganomics: “supply-side” • “Supply-Side” Economics: • Fewer taxes = people save $ • Banks then loan $ to businesses • Businesses then invest $ into resources to improve productivity • SUPPLY of goods and services then increases • Leads to lower prices • AKA: “TRICKLE-DOWN” ECONOMICS
International events of Ronald Reagan’s presidency • 1985 Mikhail Gorbachev leader of USSR • Introduced “glasnost” (openness) and “perestroika” (restructuring of Soviet society) • 1987 Reagan encouraged Gorbachev to “tear down this wall” • 1989 Berlin Wall came down • Beginning of end of COLD WAR
Latin America and Caribbean • Aid to Contras in Nicaragua who were against Communist sympathizing leadership • Use of military in Grenada to overthrow pro-Cuban government (1983)
The Iran-Contra scandal • 1983: Terrorist group loyal to Iran took American hostages in Lebanon • Reagan urged allies not to sell arms to Iran for its war against Iraq • 1986: Public learned Reagan had approved sale of arms to Iran for promise of hostage release • Reagan’s staff then sent part of profits to Contras in Nicaragua • Led to investigation and scandal
Collapse of the Soviet Union • Brought about by changes in society of Soviet Union • Country was in a situation of severe stagnation, with deep economic and political problems • Role of Gorbachev: glasnost & perestroika • Failure of Communism as economic system • Nationalist movements in non-Russian areas • December of 1991: Soviet Union disintegrated into fifteen separate countries
President Bill Clinton • Vowed to strengthen weakening economy • Worked to move Democratic Party toward political “center” by embracing both liberal and conservative programs • Reforms Sought: 1) Health care 2) Balanced Budget 3) Welfare
Clinton Presidency • Increase in terrorism: • 1993 Bombing of World Trade Center • 1995 Bombing Oklahoma City Federal Building • Maintained strong relations with China and Russia 1. 2000 granted China permanent trade rights
NAFTA: North American Free Trade Agreement • Implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) began on January 1, 1994. Removes most barriers to trade and investment among the United States, Canada, and Mexico. • Critics Say: “harms American workers by transferring jobs to other nations”
Impeachment and acquittal • 1994 Republicans gained control of Congress • Clinton charged with ….. Perjury and obstruction of justice • Connection to Whitewater Scandal: Clinton accused of improper use of funds from land deal to fund 1984 gubernatorial re-election • Connection to Monica Lewinsky Scandal • 1999 Senate fell short of two-thirds majority needed for conviction
The 2000 presidential election • Al Gore v. George W. Bush • FL controversy over counting of votes • Bush’s razor thin margin of victory led to manual “recount of votes” • Supreme Court voted 5-4 to end recounts and Bush was awarded delegates that provided him with ELECTORAL COLLEGE WIN
The role of the electoral college • Group of people who formally elect the president of the USA (their vote happens after the popular vote). The Electoral College is composed of delegates from each state (plus the District of Columbia) • The Constitution created this body, which consists of gatherings of state electors in each state to formally cast their ballots for a candidate for whom they have pledged to vote
September 11, 2001 • Terrorist attacks • NYC: World Trade Center • D.C.: Pentagon • United Flight 93: White House? • Blame: Osama bin Laden & Al-Qaeda
War against Terrorism Osama bin-Laden Al-Qaeda WANTED
American interventions in Afghanistan • October 2001 • Looking for Osama and al-Qaeda • Taliban (Afghanistan govt.) harboring terrorists
American interventions in Iraq • March 2003 to Present (May 2008) • Saddam Hussein accused of manufacturing WMD’s (weapons of mass destruction) • Link to bin Laden and al-Qaeda? • “Fight terrorism elsewhere rather than in U.S.” • War is controversial in 2008 • Initial invasion questioned