Excelling On The MAT Emily Gung Admissions Test Specialist Graduate School Valdosta State University
Analogies • Boy : Girl :: Man : _____ • Boy is to Girl AS Man is to ------ (auto, school, jungle, woman)
Miller’s Analogy Test • What is it? • Where and when can I take it? • Scores Required for VSU? • What are analogies? • How are they used in the test? • How can I prepare to do my best?
What Is The MAT? • Developed at U of Minn-1926 • New forms developed periodically • Developed to “measure scholastic aptitude at the graduate level” • Test items require recognition of relationships • Vocabulary and general information play an important part in determining scores
Where & When Can I Take It? • See Handout • Psychological Corporation Website • Toll-Free Number • List of Schools and test dates • Candidate Information Booklet • Special Dates Available through VSU • New Computer-based testing
Test Format • Pencil & Paper • 100 questions • 50 minutes • No Breaks • No Calculators or Dictionaries • Ask for scratch paper
What Are Analogies? • An analogy states that two things are related to each other in the same way that two other things are related to each other • A:B ::C:D (A is to B as C is to D)or (A is related to B in the same way C is to D) • Questions may ask you to solve for any one of the terms above (A,B,C or D) • 4 choices given for all problems
Relationships in MAT Analogies • Similarity -Relationships between synonyms or words that are nearly the same • HAPPY:GLAD :: DULL (razor, blunt, sharp, bright) • Happy & Glad are synonyms • Dull & --------- are synonyms
Relationships in MAT Analogies • Contrast -Relationships are between antonyms or words that are nearly opposite in meaning • WET: (dry, moist, towel, water) :: STOP:GO • Stop and Go are opposites • WET and - are opposites
Relationships in MAT Analogies • Predication - Terms of the analogy are related by a verb or verb relationship. One term describes something about the other term. • Some of the variations- A is caused by B, A makes B, A rides on B, A eats B, A is a source of B, A induces B, A studies B, A is made of B, A uses B, etc • AUTOMOBILE:ROAD :: TRAIN : (conductor, track, engine, ticket) (implied verb is travels on)
Relationships in MAT Analogies • Subordination - Relationships are those in which an object A is a type of B • (lizard, toad, sponge, trout):FISH :: FROG : AMPHIBIAN
Relationships in MAT Analogies • Coordination - The first two terms are one type of thing and the last two are another • LETTUCE : CABBAGE :: PEAR : (fruit, peach, radish, carrot) • Requires recognition of members of classes • Lettuce & cabbage are both types of vegetables, pear and peach are both types of fruit
Relationships in MAT Analogies • Superordination - Relationships are those in which A is a category into which B falls • BIRD : ROBIN :: MOLLUSK : (fish, water, sponge, snail) • This analogy deals with category membership. Bird is a category that includes the robin; mollusk is a category that includes the snail.
Relationships in MAT Analogies • Completion - Each term of this kind of an analogy is part of a complete expression • SAN : FRANCISCO :: (San, Santa, La, Los) : Angeles • San and Los complete the names of two cities- San Francisco and Los Angeles • United : Stand :: Divided : ______
Relationships in MAT Analogies • Part - Whole - Relationships are those in which A is part of B • DAY : WEEK :: MONTH : (hour, minute, year, time) • A day is part of a week, and a month is part of a year
Relationships in MAT Analogies • Whole - Part - Relationships are those in which B is a part of A • (hour, minute, year, time) : MONTH :: WEEK: DAY • A month is part of a year. A day is part of a week.
Relationships in MAT Analogies • Equality - Relationships involve mathematical or logical equivalence 1/2 : 1/4 :: .26 : (.52, .18, .13, .11) • Requires recognition of mathematical equalities. 1/4 is equal to one-half of 1/2, .13 is equal to one-half of .26.
Relationships in MAT Analogies • Negation - Relationships involve logical or mathematical negation Pentagon : Decagon:: Rectangle : __ (square, pentagon, heptagon, octagon)
Relationships in MAT Analogies • Sound Relationships - Two words are related because they sound similar in some way. The relationship is nonsemantic in that it has nothing to do with the meanings of the words. • TOE : ROW :: LO : (now, crow, boy, you) • Answer is crow - all have a long o vowel sound
Relationships in MAT Analogies • Letter Relationships - The order of letters of one term are altered or in some other way transformed to form the letters of another term • PAT : TAP :: RAT : (trap, skunk, tar, eat) • Tap is obtained by spelling Pat backwards. Tar is obtained by spelling Rat backwards. • BRAT : RAT :: -------- : RINK
Relationships in MAT Analogies • Word Relationships - These usually express grammatical relationships between words. • EAT : ATE :: MEET : (meat, meet, met, meets) • Ate is the past tense of Eat and Met is the past tense of Meet
Tips To Improve Your Score • Don’t Say “IS TO” • AN ANALOGY IS A PAIR OF WORDS THAT CONSTITUTES A SPECIFIC RELATIONSHIP • Make a sentence that expresses that relationship • Apple : Fruit • Sheet : Bed • Hat : Head • Mouse : Whale • Goat : Gloat
Finding The Analogy Pair • A:B :: C:D • 1 2 3 4 • Apple : Fruit :: Lollipop : (Candy,Chocolate,Vegetable, Sugar) • A 1-2 analogy • Sheet : Mask :: Bed : (face, ghost, costume, paper) • A 1-3 analogy • Hat: (glove, finger, scarf, winter) :: Head : Hand • NO OTHER RELATIONSHIPS ON THE MAT!
After You’ve Made A Sentence With The Analogy Pair- • Try “plugging” in the answer choices to the sentence • Apple: Fruit :: Lollipop (Candy, Chocolate, Vegetable, Sugar) • 1-2 analogy pair • An apple is a type of fruit • A lollipop is a type of candy • A lollipop is a type of chocolate • A lollipop is a type of vegetable • A lollipop is a type of sugar
Do the same with the 1-3 analogy • Weight:Length :: Gram: (cup, volume, distance, meter) • 1-3 relationship • A gram is a measure of weight • A cup is a measure of length • A volume is a measure of length • A distance is a measure of length • A meter is a measure of length
Summary • Identify whether a 1:2 or 1:3 analogy • Make a clear sentence expressing the relationship of the words in the pair • Go through the answers given by “plugging” each one into the sentence with the other stem word
Other Tips • Consider alternative meanings and different parts of speech • Dog:Bay :: (cow, sheep, fish, bark) : Bleat • Practice using a study guide and practice tests • Simulate the real test • 100 questions / 50 minutes
Know how the test is constructed • First 33 questions relatively simple • Second 33 or so medium difficulty • Last 33 difficult
Beware of Distractors • Wrong answers not random • Meant to entice • Read ALL Answer Choices • Especially in questions 66 - 100
Manage Your Time! • Skip Questions • Process of Elimination • What is the capital of Uganda • Paris, London, Kampala, Madrid • No blanks • Don’t fear guessing • Three pass system • Remember- No Unanswered Questions
Other Suggestions • Reduce “worries” related to the actual taking of the test! • ARRIVE EARLY (schedule it for everyone’s convenience) • BRING TWO IDENTIFICATIONS (one with a picture) • Eat and sleep adequately several days prior to the exam • Think POSITIVELY. Avoid negative self-talk such as, “I know I am going to fail,” or “I never do well on standardized tests.” • Focus on each question and don’t worry about what you just answered or what may be coming up next.