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Agriculture and Rural Land Use

Agriculture and Rural Land Use

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Agriculture and Rural Land Use

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  1. Agriculture and Rural Land Use Unit V

  2. Introduction • Nomads • HUNTERS AND GATHERERS • AGRICULTURE • The process of growing plants or raising of animals to produce food for sustenance or sale at the marketplace • Farming practices differ in MDCs vs. LDCs • In Asia, most people are SUBSISTANCE FARMERS • Growing only enough food to feed their family • In MDCs, COMMERCIAL FARMING dominates • Farms produce food to be sold in groceries and markets, not just for the farmers themselves

  3. Classifying Agricultural Regions LDCs = subsistence agriculture MDCs = commercial agriculture • Subsistence vs. commercial agriculture • Subsistence agriculture is the production of food primarily for consumption by the farmer’s family • Commercial agriculture is the production of food primarily for sale off the farm

  4. Key Questions • Where did agriculture originate? How and where did it spread? • What are the characteristics of the world’s agriculture regions? How do these regions function? • How has agricultural change affected the environment and peoples quality of life? • How does diet, energy use, and varying agrarian technology relate to agriculture’s origination? • What are different types of extensive and intensive agricultural practices? What are settlement patterns and landscapes related to each agriculture type?

  5. Cont… • What are land survey systems, environmental conditions, and cultural values linked to each agriculture type? • Why do different agricultural practices exist where they do? • What is the von Thunen model? • What is the status of food supplies throughout the world? Can humans increase the food supply and reduce starvation and malnourishment?

  6. Origin of Agriculture • An evolution of knowledge over thousands of years • As humans constantly touched and handled plants while gathering food, innovations occurred and diffused from multiple hearths (places of origin) • According to CARL SAUER: humans first learned how to grow plants through VEGETATIVE PLANTING • Cutting off a stem of another plant or by dividing up roots of a plant

  7. Cont… • It is believed women were responsible for discovering vegetative planting because of their sociological position as gatherers and medicinal healers • Later humans make the leap to… • SEED AGRICULTURE • Farming is through planting seeds rather than simply planting part of the parent plant • Leads to higher crop YIELDS because there are so many seeds

  8. Agricultural Hearths • Carl Sauer’s theory of a vegetative hearth argues that vegetative farming knowledge first originated in SE ASIA • Climate and terrain there would have supported the growth of root plant that are easily divided, such as taro, yam, banana, and palm • From the hearth, it diffused north and east to China and to Japan, and then west toward SW Asia, Africa, and the Mediterranean

  9. Other vegetative hearths • Others emerged through INDEPENDENT INNOVATION • NW South America • West Africa

  10. First Agricultural Revolution • Sometimes called the NEOLITHIC REVOLUTION • Brings SEED AGRICULTURE and the use of animals/DOMESTICATION in the farming process • About 12000 years ago • Replaced nomadic hunting • Human groups able to stay in one place • Leads to… • population growth • Build communities • Produce more food • Increased CARRYING CAPACITY • Development of civilization/culture

  11. SEED AGRICULTURAL HEARTHS • Western India • Diffusion to: SW Asia • Crop innovation: Wheat and Barley • SW Asia (Tigris/Euphrates rivers) • Diffusion to: Europe; N. Africa; NW India/Indus river area • Crop innovation: Integrated seed agriculture with domestication of herd animals such as sheep, cattle, and goats

  12. Cont… • N. China • Diffusion to: S. Asia and SE Asia • Crop innovation: Millet • Ethiopia • Diffusion to: NONE • Crop innovation: Millet • S. Mexico • Diffusion to: Western Hemisphere • Crop innovation: Squash and Corn • N. Peru • Diffusion to: Western Hemisphere • Crop innovation: Squash, cotton, beans

  13. Second Agricultural Revolution • After fall of Rome around 500 CE, farming grew into a feudal village structure • During Middle ages most farmers use SUSTENANCE FARMING in an… • OPEN LOT SYSTEM • One in which there was one large plot of community farmland that all villagers worked to produce a crop to eat • As capitalism grew, feudalism diminished and villages enclosed their farmland

  14. Enclosure Movement • Gave individual farmers their own land… marks a shift in agriculture from CLUSTERED RURAL SETTLEMENTS to DISPERSED RURAL SETTLEMENTS • Most influential during the 17th and 18th centuries during England’s Industrial Revolution • Growing industry and decline of Feudalism leads to URBAN MIGRATION • Former farmers moving to the cities for work • Caused a jump in food demand from farms into cities • With demand comes innovation

  15. 2nd agricultural revolution innovation • Better collar for oxen • Use of horses instead of oxen • New fertilizers • Field drainage • Irrigation systems • Storage systems • ALL INCREASED YIELD and ENCOURAGE POPULATION BOOM

  16. Major Agricultural Production Regions

  17. Subsistence Agriculture • Practiced in LDCs • 3 Types • Shifting cultivation • Intensive subsistence • Pastoralism

  18. 1. Shifting Cultivation • EXTENSIVE AGRICULTURE • Large amts. Of land… not as much food • Farmers rotate the fields they cultivate to allow the soil to replenish • Different than CROP ROTATION • Found often in the TROPICAL ZONES (rain forest regions in Africa, Amazon river basin in S. America, and SE Asia) • Topsoil is thin in these areas… means less nutrients • Mainly due to heavy rains that wash it away

  19. Cont… • SLASH AND BURN • SWIDDEN • Cleared land • Not dependent on technology • May utilize INTERTILLAGE • Mixing various seeds on one plot of land • Each plot will last 2-3 years then they move on • FALLOW • The land not being used

  20. Cont… • Use A LOT of land • 25% of earth’s land • Cannot produce large amounts of food • Because of this many have tried to switch to commercial forms of farming instead • May have criticisms from local culture

  21. 2. Intensive Subsistence Agriculture • INTENSIVE AGRICULTURE • Small amts. Of land… large amount of food • Make the most use of land • But still SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE • Usually found in highly populated areas • China, India, SE Asia

  22. Cont… • Rice is the dominant intensive susbsistence agriculture crop in S. China, India, SE Asia, and Bangladesh • Summer rainfall is abundant • Where winters are too cold for rice… grains are grown • Some places may engage in DOUBLE CROPPING

  23. Pastoralism • The breeding and herding of animals to produce food, shelter, and clothing for survival • Usually practiced in places with little arable land • Can be sedentary or nomadic • N. Africa, Central and Southern Africa, Middle East, Central Asia

  24. Cont… • Transhumanence • The movement of animal herds to cooler highland areas in the summer to warmer, lowland areas in the winter • Pastoral farmers usually trade with local farmers for food/supplies • Depend on Trade for survival • Overall it is declining since the land they use is being used for other things

  25. Mediterranean Agriculture • Primarily associated with the mediterranean sea area and places with hot, dry summers and mild, wet winters. • California, Chile, S. South Africa, South Australia • Wheat, barley, vine and tree crops, grazing • Olives, grapes, and figs are staple crops • Can be Intensive or Extensive depending on crop • Can be Subsistence or Commercial

  26. COMMERCIAL FARMING • Mixed crop and Livestock farming • Ranching • Dairy • Large scale grain • Plantation (mainly practiced in LDCs)

  27. Mixed Crop and Livestock Farming • Involves growing crops AND raising animals • Most crops used to feed the animals • This produces manure fertilizer for sale and goods such as eggs • Most income comes from animal products • Reduce dependence on seasonal harvests • Europe and E. North America • Near Urban areas mainly • May engage in crop rotation

  28. Ranching • Commercial grazing, or the raising of animals on a plot of land on which they graze • Usually extensive • Cattle and Sheep in demand for wool and meat • Usually practiced in areas too dry to support crops • USA, Argentina, S. Brazil, Uruguay • Declining in practiced

  29. Cont… • Many US ranches are being converted to “fattening” ranches on which fixed lot cattle are fattened then slaughtered • Also found in Tropical areas of Latin America and N. Mexico • Too wet to grow crops there • Decline in ranching due to cost vs. crops

  30. Dairying • Growth of milk based products for the marketplace • Usually close to the marketplace • Usually small and labor intensive • CAPITAL INTENSIVE FARMS vs. LABOR INTENSIVE FARMS • MILKSHED • Has expanded with technology along with the amount a cow can produce

  31. Large Scale grain farms • Grains most often grown to be exported to other places for consumption • Canada, US, Argentina, Australia, France, England, and Ukraine • Ukraine once considered Russia’s “breadbasket” • US world’s largest producer • Wheat is leading export crop • US and Canada produce ½ of the world’s grain • Most grain worldwide is grown to feed animals • Saw expansion during the industrial revolution • Usually highly mechanized and thus Capital Intensive • McCormick Reaper • The Combine

  32. Plantation Farming • Large farms specializing in one or two crops • Tropical and subtropical zones in colonized areas • Coffee, tea, pineapples, palms, coconuts, rubber, tobacco, sugarcane, and cotton • Usually in LDCs but owned by companies in MDCs • Usually in coastal areas with easy access to exports • Still Labor intensive

  33. Rural Land Decisions on Farm Locations

  34. Physical Factors • Appropriate environment for cultivating varies depending on the type of crop • Farmers can mold the environment • Environmental determinism vs. possibilism vs. cultural determinism • Farmers evaluate: • SOIL • Depth, texture, nutrient composition, acidity • RELIEF • “shape of the field”… includes slope and altitude • Might look at sun exposure time • Flat lands are best… sloped are difficult to irrigate • Altitude can affect temperature • CLIMATE • TEMP and RAINFALL are most influential factors • Different crops require different water and temp

  35. Political-Cultural Factors • Political and cultural factors also influence agricultural decisions • Ex. Hinduism holds cattle sacred… It is taboo in Islamic religions to eat pigs • Ex. Immigrants often carry with them their homelands’ farming practices and food preferences • Food taboos not always religious… although nutritious the US does not eat horse

  36. Cont… • Political decisions also make an impact • In LDCs… governments encourage use of tech • During Green Revolution (3rd agricultural revolution… 1960s-1990s) many LDCs tried to subsidize the use of efficient seed types that were more expensive • European Union pays farmers to NOT grow crops in an attempt to eliminate massive surpluses that drive prices down to nothing • National treasure crops… France (grapes) • France also turns its lower quality grapes into biofuel

  37. Economic Factors • Land rent • The price a farmer must pay for each acre of land • A farm’s location is related to how much money the farmer can make from a crop to pay the rent • Rent is cheaper farther away from a city • Therefore extensive farming takes place farther away from the city

  38. Agricultural Location Theory • Von Thunen… 19th century German economist • Model attempts to explain and predict where and why various agricultural activities take place around a city’s marketplace • EXPLAINS and PREDICTS • Agricultural land use patterns

  39. Von Thunen model • Contains a Central Marketplace • Farmland is equally farmable and productive • Only one form of transportation • Only variable that could change (according to Von Thunen) was distance • Results in concentric rings of Agricultural activities • Moving outwards from a marketplace results in more extensive farming… Intensive agriculture took place more towards the center

  40. Explanation • Land rent and Transportation costs explain pattern • Closer to city more expensive • More perishable crops are closer

  41. Usefulness of Model • If you only have one variable… Transportation costs then it is useful • Unfortunately… we have more variables • He tried to remodel the model later with the introduction of a river • Tried to introduce differing soil qualities later • Overall it shows the INFLUENCE OF DISTANCE in human decision making • Like all models, researchers try to use his model to predict future land use

  42. Settlement Patterns in Villages • Village • May vary by culture • Usually related to function and environment • In Europe, villages were often clustered on a hillside to leave the flatlands for farming and village protection • In lowland areas… a linear pattern emerges following the river (long lot system in France) • Many places built with a grid pattern with geometric boundaries (USA) • Throughout Europe, Asia, Africa… a round pattern… space in middle for cattle

  43. Housing Materials • WOOD • Eurasia, US Pacific Coast, N. America, Australia, Brazil, Chile • STONE • Europe, Egypt, India, W. China, Yucatan, Mexico, S/Central Africa, Middle East • GRASS AND BRUSH • Low latitude regions… African Savanna, E. African Highlands, S. Africa, S. American highlands, N. Australia • POLES AND STICKS • Africa, SE Asia, W. Africa, Amazon Basin • SUN DRIED BRICKS • Middle East, Middle and S. America, N. China, African Savanna, N. Africa • OVEN BAKED BRICKS • Modern, contemporary areas in MDCs

  44. Modern Commercial Agriculture

  45. Third Agricultural Revolution • Green Revolution evolves from the 3rd agricultural revolution • Distributed mechanized farming, chemical fertilizers on a global level • Farming and food processing were at different sites

  46. Industrializing the farm process • Harvest and ship off for marketing and distribution • Factory system • AGRIBUSINESS • The system of food production involving seed development to marketing and sale of the food products • Integral to US and Global Economy • Think about milk before and after the 3rd agricultural revolution

  47. Globalization of the farming process • Colonialization/ Imperialism led to core/periphery regions • Colonies used to supply • Neocolonialism/Post colonialism • Many foods in grocery stores grown in LDCs and shipped to MDCs • TRUCK FARMS- growing a crop to supply a distant market