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Networks in art

Networks in art

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Networks in art

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  1. Networks in art Annukka Jyrämä ja Katri Nykänen Annukka Jyrämä

  2. Discussion • What is a network? • Whatisn’t a network? • How arts and networksbelongtogether

  3. Why networks, different perspectives • Society • Company • Organization • Management • Personnel • Customer Katri Nykänen

  4. Whynetworks? • Synergy • Knowledge • Innovation • Resources • Complexity of serviceproduction • New types of services • Peer support • Reputation Katri Nykänen

  5. JV SF SH MA LP LL HH VA AS MK PS M-LR LR ä TT RP LT RT JJ JL LR o IK SaP KT RL TH Katri Nykänen

  6. Annukka Jyrämä

  7. Actors Actors perform activities Actors own and control resources NETWORK Activities Resources The activities shape the resources and join them together (Håkansson 1987)

  8. Public sector networks Policy networks • In the legislation level networks exist since the laws are seen as a joint effort and not only the test of public government. • Policy networks exist, because the actors communicate and share resources on continuous basis • Policy networks include actors from private and third sector in addtion to the public actors (Rhodes 1981; Rathemayer and Hatmaker 2008) • The actors include public offices, companies and non profit organizations • The actors from private and third sector are motivated to participate in the policy networks because the laws and policies will effect them • Usually these networks concentrate in one field, for example heath care, energy, environment

  9. Public sector networks Collaboration level • In this level the networks concentrate on implementing through service production what the policy networks have • The service requirements and the production of services are so complex that new ways of producing services are required • The management of new services has offered two new ways to meet the complexity of the service production is the public sector: • Some public services have been privatized • Collaboration networks are a new ways to organize and produce services • Collaboration networks include actors from public, private and third sector • The collaboration networks enable the production of those services that one single actors can’t produce alone due to the high price of service production and the minimizing resources of public sector (Rathemayer and Hatmaker 2008; Agranoff and McGuire 2001; Mandell2001)

  10. Emerging Value-production Nets Current Value-production Nets Renewal Nets Hospitals E-HealthServices Elderly careresearch networks Communal health centers Tele- and mobile diagnostics New medicalaid devices Private medical center chains Caring TV concepts ‘Telecare’ New service offerings Service houses ‘Smart homes’ Communal home help services New wellbeing center concepts ICT supportsystems High level of determination Low level of determination Stable, well-definedvalues system Established value system, incremental improvements Emerging value system,radical changes = Describes ideal types of the values systems and their overlapping characteristics Note: Large corporations can be hubs and participants in all kinds of nets Framework for value networks, K. Möller et al. Annukka Jyrämä Aalto University School of Business

  11. Currentvalue-productionnets • Museums • Theatres • Traditionalfestivals: Notallfestivalsarewell-established; neednetwork for administrativereasons; needresources • Cinema • Ballett • Summer Theatres: Usuallyworktogetherwithschools/universities; collaboratewithtourism etc. Annukka Jyrämä

  12. What could be the examples in arts? Emerging Value-production Nets Current Value-production Nets Renewal Nets High level of determination Low level of determination Stable, well-definedvalues system Established value system, incremental improvements Emerging value system,radical changes

  13. What is needed to succesfullymaintain a netwotk • Structures • Supportingcollaborationbetweenorganizations • Sharedpremices • Sharedresources • Sharedprocesses • Culture • Creating a sharedgoal in customerlevel • Takingresponcibility • Sharingknowledge • Practices • Sharedmeetings • Social happening overorganizationalborders • Tiedotteet • Tools • Discussionmethods • Sharedmeasures • Computer systems and programsthatsupportcollaboration Grandori and Soda 1995 Katri Nykänen

  14. THE NETWORK COMPETENCE OF CRAFT ENTREPRENEURS Anne Äyväri, Laurea Annukka Jyrämä, HSE

  15. Two approaches to networks • The entrepreneurial networks approach • (e.g. Aldrich and Zimmer, 1986; Johannisson, 1988; Johannisson, Ramirez-Pasillas and Karlsson, 2002; Larson and Starr, 1993) • The industrial networks or IMP approach • (e.g. Axelsson and Easton, 1992, Håkansson and Snehota, 1995).

  16. Aim of the study • To deepen the understanding of capabilities needed to establish and maintain business relationships and nets

  17. On network competence • Comprising of skills, abilities, orientations, tasks, functions, human resources, and organisation structures and systems. • Manifested in reported actions, in carrying out different kinds of activities when establishing relationships and maintaining nets

  18. …networkcompetence Annukka Jyrämä

  19. Research Design • a multiple case study: 14 cases of owner-run micro-sized crafts firms, entrepreneurs • various types of firms: • at different stages of the company life cycle, differing customers (foreign/local, consumers/companies) and with different channel choices. • similar: their business models included the idea of collaboration with other actors in manifold ways. • a variety of crafts and design fields: textile and fashion design and production, silver- and goldsmiths, furniture design and production, carpentry, ceramics and stained-glass design. • data • theme interviews with the entrepreneurs • articles and other information about the companies and the entrepreneurs, and the actors in their focal nets (web search) • six expert interviews • The lead author of this paper had some prior knowledge of the field

  20. Analysis • abductive reasoning • case-by-case 1. Creating and seizing business opportunities, choice of partners and establishing relationships, maintaining relationships, coordinating operations between multiple partners, and ending relationships. 2. interpretation of the capabilities needed to perform those activities was based on the clues given by the data of the case, the theories of industrial networks and entrepreneurial networks, previous conceptualisations of relational and network competence, and the characteristics of craft knowledge and craft entrepreneurship

  21. Ability to identify the needs of one’s own firm, and inform other actors about those needs Ability to utilise one’s own and partners’ contacts in order to identify potential new partners Visioning capability Contact-seeking capability Confidence in networks as a system The network competence of craft entrepreneurs: capabilities needed in establishing relationships.

  22. Customer-oriented product modification and tailoring capability Ability to manage time: reserving enough time to nurture relationships Social skills, social flexibility Ability to share one’s own knowledge, and accept and utilise other actors’ knowledge Coordination capability Ability to take partner’s interests into consideration The network competence of craft entrepreneurs: capabilities needed in maintainingrelations and networks.

  23. Capabilities needed in establishing relationships Capabilities needed in maintaining relationships and nets • Confidence in networks as a system • Visioning capability • Ability to identify the needs of one’s own firm, and inform other actors about those needs • Contact-seeking capability • Ability to utilise one’s own and present partners’ contacts to identify potential new partners • Ability to take partner’s interests into consideration • Social skills, social flexibility • Ability to share knowledge, and accept and utilise other actors’ knowledge • Customer-oriented product modification and tailoring capability • Ability to manage time: reserving enough time to nurture relationships • Coordination capability Conclusions

  24. 1. Field assignment DESIGN SHOPS • On 8th August, after the lectures, you are to visit 2 design shops. • The assignment is done in pairs • The field assignment will introduce you to the concept of brands and customer segments Annukka Jyrämä

  25. 1. Field assignment DESIGN SHOPS • The field assignment should proceed in the following way • Look and observe • What type of products • What quality • Profile of potential customers • The space and surroundings • Reflect the shops image and design from the perspective of a tourist/visitor (yourself) • Compare the two design shops and their image and design AnnukkaJyrämä

  26. 1. Field assignment DESIGN SHOPS • You should write a small report of 4-5 pages of your visit • You are encouraged to use pictures, video and other methods and paterial as a part of your report • The report is due Thursday 14th August • Email to annukka.jyrama@aalto.fi • To find design shops look for example • www.designdistrict.fi Annukka Jyrämä