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Technology Diplomacy - historical perspective and approaches

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Technology Diplomacy - historical perspective and approaches

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  1. Technology Diplomacy-historical perspective and approaches DST sponsored training programme on Technology Diplomacy Deepak Bhatnagar Head,Centre for International Trade in Technology

  2. Technology Diplomacy – its ‘ raison d’ etre’ “ India’s well wishers have long been puzzled that a literate country that has done all the right things in half a century of independence, creating a network of vigorous public research laboratories, recruiting scientists and engineers to them and driving the standards of engineering education to the highest level, should have reaped so little benefit from its investments. Now, the tide has begun to turn, with India’s software industry making its mark in international markets. India, the authentic land of the tiger, looks like being the next Asian Tiger’ - Sir John Maddox, Editor Emeritus, Nature

  3. Who was the first ‘Technology Diplomat’? • King Porus- gifted 100 talens of steel to Alexander the Great in 326BC- (unwittingly using ‘diplomacy’ to avoid being hanged or becoming a prisoner-of-war! • Craftsmen who made ‘wootz’ steel - gave it to traders who went to Persia - the steel was used to make the famous Damascus swords- were also, in a way, part of these initial forays in ‘technology diplomacy’ by India’s skilled craftsmen. (‘Wootz’ derived from the Kannada word ‘UKKU’ meaning steel) • British Royal Society made a detailed examination of Wootz Steel in 1790: their report says….“the steel of India is decidedly the best I have yet met with!” • “Should Tatas make steel rails to British specifications, I would undertake to eat every pound of it” - Sir Fredrick Upcott, Chief Commissioner of Indian Railways • “If Upcott had carried out this undertaking he would have had some slight indigestion”(comment by Dorabjee Tata when the rails were sent to UK)

  4. Modern day ‘Technology Diplomats’ from India • Millions of Indians, who have used their innovative genes and technological prowess to develop new products and services , to create ‘wealth’ – not just confined to the borders of our country , but across the world! • Sabeer Bhatia (Hotmail ) • Vinod Dham ( Pentium chip ) • Kanwal Rekhi, Vinod Khosla, Rajat Gupta(Mc Kenzie-founder of ISB) • Narinder Singh Kampany (who developed Fibre Optics) • Dr Sanjay Gupta whose face is so familiar on CNN talking on Health issues and now with Obama’s administration • Indeed, more than 25% of the doctors in USA and UK are of Indian origin. • Scientific Diplomacy – Nobel Prize winners of Indian origin • CV Raman, • Hargobind Khurana • S Chandrashekhar • Venkat Raman

  5. Flashback - the beginnings of Science in India ‘food-gathering’to ‘food-production’ • Indus valley Civilization - intermingling of people from different countries - several new technological features • Foreign conquests also brought in technologies for town planning, drainage systems, tiled flooring, solid wheeled carts , copper-bronze craftsmanship etc. • Intermingling of races-first endeavors of sharing skills from different cultures • India -‘Soft’ superpower with skills in computers - ‘binary system ‘ which is the very basis of Computer programs.

  6. India: A technology focused transition--- from Dependence to Independence to Inter- dependence!! Dependence: -200 years of foreign rule upto 1947 -India was used as a base for raw material exploitation -Traditional Industrial activities at Cottage level Independence: - S&T as a critical input for economic development of the country -National Policy on Socialistic pattern of growth -Centralized Planning and State Controlled economy -Thrust on Self reliance and Import substitution Inter-dependence: -New Industrial Policy of 1991 -Globalization of Trade and Economy driven by market forces -Focus on ‘hi-tech’ initiatives to yield ‘value-added’ products and services -Technology as a prime vehicle for India’s economic growth and sustenance Advent of globalization- World is increasingly becoming inter-dependent, not just in the supply of raw materials and machinery, but more so in terms of technology and knowledge sharing and transfer. Science, technology and innovation is going to determine the economic and political power of the nations.

  7. Need for technology diplomacy • Marked rise in the interest in the cultural heritage of India • Ready market it offers for world business • Projection of India’s technological capabilities has been pitifully weak • Trends in key S&T fields is an essential pre-requisite to effective international negotiations

  8. International Negotiations- two key features • Scientific knowledge becoming increasingly specialized - demands greater expert input into international negotiations. • The application of S&T to development requires the ability to integrate the divergent disciplines to solve specific problems International diplomacy now demands that government negotiators deal with both specialization and integration. “…the provision of science and technology advice to multilateral negotiations and the implementation of the result of such negotiations at the national level. It therefore covers activities at both international level and national level pursuant to international commitments.”

  9. Collaborative Research- across national boundaries • Most challenging & rewarding ‘technology diplomacy’ - carry out joint research across national boundaries • Classic example - Nobel Prize winning joint work of teams from India & USA, UN Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change - Dr RK Pachauri, TERI, India and Al Gore, USA • Rich-world companies are doing more R&D in emerging markets e.g. Fortune 500 companies now have 98 R&D facilities in China and 63 in India

  10. In a Globalised world… • Diplomacy: from political to economic to technological • Major technological issues – have a diplomatic dimension (and vice-versa!) • S&T Cooperation is a ‘live’ area of international diplomacy • India has been a major user of this ‘weapon’ in the ‘arsenal of linkage building’ • Technological prowess-increased ‘respect’ and ‘Image’ in the comity of Nations. (eg. Nuclear tests, Satellites, Missiles) • India-US Nuclear deal • Good way to increase our ‘maneuverability’ • Way out of MTCR and ‘Sanctions’ (after nuclear test 11 May 1998) • Iran and North Korea: always the cloud of hostility and suspicion. • S&T cooperation- Key driver of diplomatic relations • Science Counsellors in US, UK, Germany , France, Japan. • Implementing bilateral programme • Tracking developments related to technology. • “Look East” policy: ASEAN-India S&T cooperation • Russia: Steel Plants to Cryogenic engines (vehemently opposed by USA) • US – Leading S&T partner • Germany- Second largest (After 1990 when it displaced Soviet Union) • Links CSIR with Frauenhofer society ,Steinbeis Foundation- bridge between Industry and R&D institutions (CII Links)

  11. Technology Diplomacy in Europe:Realised its importance as early as 1952 • CERN (European Council for Nuclear Energy) set up by 11 European Govts in Geneva • Europe - devastated by World War II - Scientists migrating to US - Europe pooled resources based on their GDP and set up CERN. • CERN gave birth to the world wide web • Forefront of Nuclear Accelerator technology: Large Hadron Collider- expected to answer fundamental problems of nature • ‘Computer Grid’ technology is taking birth – connecting all computers in major labs of the world. • ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) • From Plasma physics to electricity producing nuclear fusion power plants (the principle on which sun produces energy) • Answer to long term energy needs • India is a partner (IPR, Gandhinagar) • ITER is expected to produce 500 MW of power and scheduled to be switched on in 2018. • Main aim of ITER is to produce 5 to 10 times more energy then the amount consumed.

  12. India-EU collaboration - ‘India Gate Project’ • India-EU collaboration functional from 2001 onwards • Science-Technology-Innovation more explicitly by 2012 • ‘European Innovation Integration’ corresponds to the Govt. of India’s ‘2010-2020 as the Decade of Innovation’ • INDIA GATE is a project funded by the 7th Framework Programme of the European Commission that aims to improve the scientific and technological cooperation between India and the EU. • The Centre for International Trade in Technology (CITT) at the Indian Institute of Foreign Trade (IIFT) is one of the three project partners from India (others are CSIR & EIRC) • European partners are: Europa Media, Hungary; APRE, Italy; FORTH, Greece; BEA, Belgium Objectives:The primary objective of INDIA GATE is to boost the Scientific and Technological cooperation between India and the European Union by creating a single space for discovering information about available funding opportunities for EU institutions and individuals in India.

  13. Role of S&T in International Diplomacy and Trade • Emergent forms of international diplomacy are developing to deal with a number of emerging issues where science and technology play a central role eg. Infectious diseases, environmental degradation , electronic crimes, weapons of mass destruction and the impacts and applications of new and emerging technologies –particularly bio-technology. • Substantial benefits can also be derived from linking S&T diplomacy with trade, enterprise development and investment policies. • Science and Technology-related issues are often at the root of many trade controversies/disputes. Successful trade negotiations therefore demand a greater understanding by trade diplomats and policy-makers of the scientific underpinnings of trade issues.

  14. Science and Technology Diplomacy Initiative • Established at UNCTAD - following recommendations of the United Nations Commission on Science and Technology for Development (UNCSTD) • Implemented by UNCTAD in collaboration with the Science, Technology and Innovation Program of Harvard University's Kennedy School of Government. • The main objective of the Science and Technology Diplomacy Initiative is to mobilize scientific and technological expertise to enable developing country diplomats and representatives to participate fully and to make informed decisions on emerging issues, where science and technology play an important role, particularly in the aftermath of the Doha WTO Ministerial meeting. • To provide training and workshops for diplomats, scientists and policy-makers to assist them in international negotiations, particularly those that take place at the TRIPS Council, with respect to the Convention on Biological Diversity, biotechnology, and transfer of technology. • Succinct technology diplomacy briefs on emerging science and technology issues

  15. International S&T Cooperation – a new paradigm in diplomacy • Broadly classified into three categories-based on the mode of funding & relative scientific & technical strengths of the collaborating partners. • The first two categories - whether India is a beneficiary or a benefactor. India receives grants - advanced countries support science. • As a donor, India funds R&D in another country as a gesture of goodwill and also provides consultancy services. • Responsibility of negotiating S&T cooperation agreements and coordinating programmes rests with the DST. • Department of Biotechnology - International Center for Genetic engineering and biotechnology (ICGEB). • International S&T Cooperation agreements have been signed with around 80 countries as well as with regional groupings like ASEAN, BIMSTEC, SAARC etc Contd.

  16. International S&T Cooperation – a new paradigm in diplomacy Few notable programmes: • Indo-US S&T Forum and the DST-NSF arrangements • An integrated long term program of cooperation with Russia (ILTP) • Indo-German experience started in the ‘60s with atomic energy and space and has now extended in other areas, including academic exchanges through DAAD, Humboldt, Max –Planck-Gesselschaft and others. • Indo-French Centre for the promotion of Advanced research (CEFIPRA) • Indo-British exchanges –seeds were sown in the academic institutions • DST-Japan society for promotion of science(JSPS) and Science &Technology Agency (STA) • ASEAN –India S&T forum When Indian scientists are felicitated for their achievements and contributions abroad, one has a feeling that they are truly the ‘brand ambassadors ‘ of our country.

  17. S&T Cooperation in relationships: • Case of Mauritius • Large population of Indian origin • Two major scientific projects • First • Satellite tracking station operated by ISRO • The only full control station outside India • Mauritius has shown a rare degree of friendship in making available this research base • Second • Vast amount of land made available for setting up a radio-astronomy facility that is unique in Southern Hemishphere • Basic research into the origin of Universe • Mauritius has an experiment in basic research: fully funded by India.

  18. Climate Change Issues…. • All about reducing carbon foot print by better technology • Developed countries: useful ‘stick’ to force developing nations ‘buy their’ technology • Reducing CO2 emissions thru’ better technologies helps in sale of ‘carbon credits’ • Strategic tie-ups on Energy: - Indo-US agreement on Hydrogen Energy Technology • Vinod Khosla new Green Venture - has employed Tony Blair for ‘diplomatic lobbying’ to promote environment friendly technologies.

  19. Technology Bazaar … • Shift in joint R&D projects from mere basic research to involve industry in a partnership mode. • Global giants like GE, Du Pont, HP, Hughes, Motorola, SmithKline Beecham, Unilever and others have set up alliances with Indian companies. • CSIR labs are signing contract research agreements –with Indian as well as foreign clients. For eg, Reliance Industries , in collaboration with NCL is testing a novel non-polluting process, Du Pont has tied up with IIT Chennai for development and screening of new agro chemicals. • Gugulipid –a cholesterol lowering drug was developed by the CDRI and the technology was passed on to Cipla and a French company. Similar initiatives have been taken by other scientific departments like Atomic Energy, Space, Electronics , Bio-technology to develop new products which have significant export potential.

  20. Conclusion: North-South Philosophical divide • “Knowledge flows from north to south and wisdom flows from south to north”- Fredrico Mayor -DG of UNESCO • Knowledge may flow from north to south but ‘usable knowledge’ does not flow that easily from north to south , since usable knowledge has the potential to create wealth. No country or no corporation gives a competitive advantage to another, excepting at a price. India itself has realized this in the post liberalization era. • Indian scientists have always been front runners in the pursuit of science. “ It is an inherent obligation of a great country like India, with its traditions of scholarship and original thinking and its great cultural heritage to participate fully in the march of science, which is probably mankind’s greatest enterprise today” - Jawaharlal Nehru

  21. Biotechnology - Sectoral Perspective

  22. Biotechnology - aptly described as the “technology of hope” • For its promise to deliver food security, life-saving drugs, alternate energy and environmental sustainability. • Over 100 national research laboratories employing thousands of scientists. • About 3,00,000 postgraduates and 1,500 PhDs qualify in biosciences and engineering each year. • According to reports, outside of the US, India ranks the highest with 61 USFDA-approved plants and in excess of 200 GMP certified pharmaceutical manufacturing facilities. • Indian Government's national biotechnology development strategy is a comprehensive road map for this emerging sector. • Industry size: $5 billion with bio-pharma driving the growth trajectory. • It offers an attractive cost arbitrage in research & development at roughly a third of that in the western hemisphere. • Key enablers include a large, qualified English-speaking workforce, a network of reputed research laboratories and state-of-the –art pharmaceutical labs and manufacturing facilities. • Drug discovery and development, fierce competition and pricing pressure are all spurring western pharma companies to have an India strategy. • Large number of block-buster drugs are also set to go off-patent. • The industry is collaborating with global giants in clinical trials, discovery and development research, and manufacturing. Huge opportunity for growth only if innovation becomes part of the business ethic

  23. Traditional Medicine: India as a ‘Window for the world’ • Indian system of medicine AYUSH • Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy • 25% of modern medicines derived from plants • 65% of population in rural Indus use Ayurveda and medicinal plants • World market for natural products US$62 Billion • Double digit growth • 70% of population in developed countries have tried and regularly depend on natural products for health care. • India : ideally placed for lead in international markets • Wide range of expertise honed on centuries old traditions • Backed by State-of-the art S&T capabilities in Biotechnology • Huge availability of Natural ingredients: 15 agro-climatic zones 15000 medicinal plants (7000 plants used in Ayurveda, 700 in Unani medicine, 600 in Siddha medicine & 30 in modern medicine) • Modern technologies • Standardization of herbal drugs • Green pharmacy concepts. • IIFT carrying out a study on India’s Export potential of AYUSH products in SAARC & ASEAAN countries.

  24. Table1: Export of AYUSH products in ASEAN countries (US $ million) Source: INDIA-TRADE, CMIE

  25. Table2: Export of AYUSH products in SAARC countries (US $ million) Source: INDIA-TRADE, CMIE

  26. Case Study: Japanese buying Ranbaxy! • 4 decades - home based enterprise to a big MNC • Acquired many domestic and foreign companies • Several joint ventures with foreign players • 2008 – sold 63.92% stake for $ 4.6 Billion to Daiichi Sankyo of Japan • CEO & MD Malvinder Singh justifies… “this will put us on a new and much stronger platform to harness our capabilities in drug development, manufacturing and global reach” • Strategic Transactions: bringing together generic and innovative company (no. 1 in Generic – bigger than Teva) • Strong focus on Internationalization - 99% of Pharma market is outside India. • Research based company – to discover its own proprietary drugs to leverage IPR • Series of overseas acquisitions - Access to technology (alliances with Big Pharma brought certainty of US markets) - Foothold on the unbranded generics business • Ranbaxy and Glaxo Smithkline (GSK) – global alliance for drug discovery • March 2006: 4 global acquisitons in 10 days • True ‘Technology Diplomat’ with footprint in 49 countries with an intellectual pool of 12,000 multi cultural work force from 51 nationalities.

  27. Low Cost Insulin Pump • Under development at Amrita School of bio-technology with support from TIFAC, DST. • Partnership with Bio-Con, a leading manufacturer of human re-combinant insulin. • Price range in the 1000s. Imported pump costs Rs. 1.75 lakhs. • Globally competitive product. • A boon for diabetics, numbers increasing at alarming rate.

  28. Development Chain • Mind to Market • Thoughts to things • Concept to commerce • Bench to bedside

  29. FUNGISOMETMPride Product of Public-Private Partnership FUNGISOMETM development at Delhi University & KEM Hospital, Mumbai was supported by DBT, MoST, GoI. Technology transferred to Lifecare Innovations Through National Research Development Corporation. R&D at Lifecare Innovations led to the commercialization of FUNGISOMETMwhich was supported by DSIR, MoST, GoI under the auspices of PATSER (Program Aimed at Techonological Self Reliance).

  30. “One need not be ashamed to express ignorance. It is hiding of one’s ignorance that one should be ashamed of.”These were the words of Prof.B.K. Bachhawat.August 16, 1925- September 23, 1996

  31. Indian Industry not ready to absorb the technology arrived before time.Turbulent time for J.N. Verma After one failure of commercialization efforts, NRDC facilitated foundation of Lifecare Innovations

  32. Liposomal Amphotericin : Produced in the lab LAMP LRC 1 Liposomal Amphotericin : Produced at Lifecare FUNGISOME TM Bench to Bedside

  33. FUNGISOMETM- "The new Gold Standard"

  34. PATSER Providing Strength • Special issue of Journal of Postgraduate Medicine on- Systemic Fungal Infections and development of Indian Liposomal Amphotericin B The special issue of the Journal highlighted matchless safety, therapeutic success and economy of treatment