CIHEAM Founded in 1962, the International CentreforAdvancedMediterraneanAgronomicStudies (CIHEAM) isanintergovernmentalorganizationincluding13 Mediterraneanmembercountries (Albania, Algeria, Egypt, Spain, France, Greece, Italy, Lebanon, Malta, Morocco, Portugal, Tunisia and Turkey). The four MAIs of Bari, Chania, Montpellier and Zaragoza are where most of CIHEAM's educational, research and cooperation work is carried out. Every year an average of 400 students are enrolled on full-time diploma courses, including 300 scholarship students, and about 1,000 more take specialised short-duration courses at the MAIs.
CIHEAM-MAIB The Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari (MAIB) is a Centre for post-graduate training, applied scientific research and promoter of in-loco partnership actions in the framework of the international cooperation programmes, it works in four thematic areas: • Land and water resources management • Integrated pest management of Mediterranean fruit crops • Mediterranean organic agriculture • Sustainable agriculture, food and rural development
Background • In the Mediterranean Basin, agriculture is one of the major economic driving forces contributing to more than 50% of the gross income of the region. Due to unfavourable climate and land conditions, agriculture almost completely relies on irrigation, and water withdrawal for agricultural use accounts for more than 80% of total abstraction of freshwater. Nevertheless, irrigated agriculture is markedly inefficient since water losses are estimated at more than 50% of sectoral water withdrawal and thus result in gradual degradation of the most fertile soils. Such mismanagement of resources is mainly due to scarce technology application and poor local capacity building, insufficient exchange and dissemination of information at local and regional scale, lack of qualified personnel, lack of funds, etc.
Background • In the region, demand for land and water resources is dramatically increasing in a regional context of high population growth, fast urbanization and expansion of economic activities. However, both land and water are very limited resources and their mismanagement can negatively affect sustainable development of the entire region, cause economic decline and food deficit problems and undermine efforts for peace and stability.
Strategies • In view of that, more efficient Land and Water Management in Mediterranean agriculture is of crucial importance for the region on the road approaching sustainability, economic and technological development and integration into globalization processes and international markets. G L O B A L I Z A T I O N CLIMATE POPULATION URBANIZATION FREE-TRADE ZONES INTERNATIONAL MARKETS AGRICULTURE WATER LAND CAPACITYBUILDING NEW TECHNOLOGIES AND COMMUNICATION TOOLS
Strategies • In this perspective, since the beginning of the nineties, the Land and Water Division of MAIB has been developing its strategies and identifying the priority research lines in close cooperation with outstanding institutions and researchers from the Mediterranean region. • Accordingly, using a participatory approach, three parallel research networks, namely • Non-conventional Water Resources Management (NWRM) • Water Use Efficiency (WUE) • Collective Irrigation Systems (CIS) • have been established involving high level researchers and decision makers from most of the Mediterranean countries.
Strategies • The success in water saving and land and water conservation depends on the level of understanding and integration of technical, environmental, socio-economic, institutional and cultural contexts. Land & Water Resource Management in Mediterranean Agriculture TECHNICAL ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMIC SOCIAL INTEGRATED APPROACH
Objectives • The specific objectives of MAIB Division on “Land and Water Resources Management” are focused mainly on irrigated agriculture and endeavour to improve: • Water use efficiency and water productivity; • On-Farm irrigation systems performance; • Large-scale irrigation systems performance and new technologies; • Use of non-conventional water resources; • Integration and up-scaling of the above issues at the basin level; • Sustainable use and management of Mediterranean soils; • Socio-economic aspects of Mediterranean agriculture; • Human resources development and capacity building.
Multilevel approach through the interaction of various topics/aspects Source of water Water demand Group of sectors and water delivery network District Water management scaling down Agricultural management scaling up Group of farms, group of hydrants and delivery network branch Sector Water management scaling down Agricultural management scaling up One farm & one hydrant Canopy - Field Water management Agricultural management scaling down scaling up Plant Water supply method
Activities • The activities (Education and Training, Research, Cooperation) are complementary and focus on both specific local conditions and global problems of the entire region. The activities embrace different scales of applications (plant/canopy, farm, water distribution system, watershed/basin and region) and comprise various field of expertise: • agro-meteorology • plant eco-physiology • crop water requirements and irrigation scheduling • crop growth modelling • agronomic practices for water saving (deficit irrigation) Agro-meteorological station Infraredthermometer
Activities • watershed hydrology and soil water balance • collective irrigation systems design and modelling • irrigation systems performance • use of non-conventional water resources • soil survey and land conservation • GIS-based territorial studies • socio-economic and environmental aspects of irrigated agriculture • climate variability and changes Canopychamber Experimentalfields
Activities • Land and Water Department uses the following supporting structures: • Laboratory for soil physics and environmental monitoring • Agro-meteorological station and laboratory • Laboratory for plant analysis • Laboratory for plant eco-physiology • Laboratory for hydraulics • Radar station for meteorological monitoring and forecasting • GIS unit for territorial studies • Greenhouse for the experiments under controlled and under soilless conditions • Off-ground drainage lysimeter station • Experimental fields • Classrooms and computer rooms
Education & Training MAI-Bari offers original and varied training courses on the thematic areas connected to its competence and completely in line with the training activities carried out by the national Institutions of the students’ countries of origin. • Long-term recurrent post-graduate specialization course
Research In the last decade (2000-2009), the overall approach and the research lines of the Land and Water Division have advanced following the progress of policies and strategies on land and water resource management in the Mediterranean region. In fact, at the beginning of this decade, the network activities focused on “Water Resources Management” partitioned into three main research lines:
Research Later on, by the end of this decade, activities have been extended in order to achieve the new objectives focussing on the integrated approach and sustainable “Land and Water Management” that consider agronomic, engineering, socio-economic and environmental aspects. Consequently, three main research lines have been enriched by new topics and integrated at catchment/basin scale together with a new research line on “Socio-economic and environmental aspects of land and water management”. • Integration at catchment/Basin scale Socio-economic and environmental aspects of land and water management
Research • Thematic areas and corresponding research lines of the Land and Water Division are:
Cooperation The international cooperation and partnership projects aim at implementation of research findings on the ground and represent the continuation of research programs. The activities are focussed on exchange and transfer of innovative approaches and technology while preserving and improving the productive values of Mediterranean agriculture and promoting sustainable development of land and water resources. These activities are realized mainly through the financial support of the European Commission Programs, Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs - General Direction for Cooperation and Development and other international and regional funding agencies.
Research& CooperationProjects ACLIMAS (2012-2014) CLIMAWARE (2010-2013) ECOWATER (2011-2014) GESAP (2010-2011)
Research& CooperationProjects INCAM (2011-2012) INTERRA (2011-2014) MEDPRO (2010-2013) PUER (2009-2011)
Research& CooperationProjects SCENES (2006-2010) SEDEMA (209-2011) SUWARESA (2011-2013) WASSERMED (2010-2012)