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A Look Into the Future

A Look Into the Future

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A Look Into the Future

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  1. Interest Grabber Section 8-3 A Look Into the Future • It is 100 years in the future and you are a research scientist. An enormous volcanic eruption has recently sent huge quantities of dust and ash into the atmosphere. • Working with a partner, make a list of how this event will affect each of the following: • 1. photosynthesis • 2. plant life • 3. animal life • 4. human societies

  2. Interest Grabber Section 8-3 A Look Into the Future • 1. photosynthesis • The rate of photosynthesis will decrease due to reduced sunlight.

  3. Interest Grabber Section 8-3 A Look Into the Future • 2. plant life • Plants will grow more slowly or die off due to decreased rate of photosynthesis.

  4. Interest Grabber Section 8-3 A Look Into the Future • 3. animal life • Animal populations will decrease after a while due to fewer plants for herbivores to eat. Fewer herbivores will eventually result in fewer carnivores. Also, less oxygen will be available.

  5. Interest Grabber Answers Section 3 Answers • 4. human societies • Human societies will have to adjust their eating habits as some food species die out.

  6. Section Outline Section 8-3 • 8–3 The Reactions of Photosynthesis A. Inside a Chloroplast B. Electron Carriers C. Light-Dependent Reactions D. The Calvin Cycle E. Factors Affecting Photosynthesis

  7. PHOTOSYNTHESIS Light-Dependent Reaction

  8. Video 3 Video 3 Light-Dependent Reactions, Part 1 • Click the image to play the video segment.

  9. PHOTOSYNTHESIS HAPPENS IN CHLOROPLASTS • _________________= saclike photosynthetic membranes inside chloroplast • ____________________ = stack of thylakoids • __________ = space around thylakoid membranes THYLAKOIDS GRANUM (pl. grana) STROMA

  10. LIGHT • LIGHT DEPENDENT REACTION • Requires ______________ • Happens within________________ • Made up of ___________________ • Connected by ______________________ • Uses light energy to change • ADP + P → _______ • NADP+ + H +→ _________ • Breaks apart ______ molecules and releases _____________ THYLAKOID membranes PHOTOSYSTEMS I & II ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN ATP NADPH H20 oxygen

  11. Video 4 Video 4 Light-Dependent Reactions, Part 2 • Click the image to play the video segment.

  12. PHOTOSYNTHESIS HAPPENS IN CHLOROPLASTS • Proteins in thylakoid membrane organize chlorophyll and other pigments into clusters called _____________________ PHOTOSYSTEMS

  13. HIGH ENERGY ELECTRONS require a special carrier, too • ____________ is one • of the carriers that • cells use to transport • high energy electrons. NADP+ ________ + _____ + _____ → ____________ NADP+ 2 e- H+ NADP+ _______= nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate

  14. Figure 8-10 Light-Dependent Reactions Section 8-3 Hydrogen Ion Movement Chloroplast Photosystem II ATP synthase Inner Thylakoid Space Thylakoid Membrane Stroma Electron Transport Chain Photosystem I ATP Formation

  15. Video 5 Video 5 Calvin Cycle • Click the image to play the video segment.

  16. CALVIN CYCLE • LIGHT INDEPENDENT REACTION • (also called _________________________) • DOES NOT require ____________ • Happens in ___________ • NADPH donates _______________ • ATP donates _________________ • CO2 donates _________________________ • to make __________ LIGHT STROMA Hydrogen ENERGY Carbon & oxygen GLUCOSE

  17. Light CO2 Sugars O2 Figure 8-7 Photosynthesis: An Overview Section 8-3 Chloroplast Chloroplast NADP+ ADP + P Light- Dependent Reactions Calvin Cycle ATP NADPH

  18. Light- dependent reactions Calvin cycle Energy from sunlight Thylakoid membranes ATP Stroma NADPH High-energy sugars ATP NADPH O2 Chloroplasts Concept Map Section 8-3 Photosynthesis includes takes place in uses use take place in to produce to produce of

  19. Figure 8-11 Calvin Cycle Section 8-3 CO2 Enters the Cycle Energy Input ChloropIast 5-Carbon Molecules Regenerated 6-Carbon Sugar Produced Sugars and other compounds

  20. PHOTOSYNTHESIS OVERVIEW BIOLOGY; MIller and Levine; Prentice Hall; 2006

  21. PHOTOSYNTHESIS Light-Dependent Reaction Water & oxygen Light & Water ATP NADPH Light-Independent Reactions Carbon Dioxide (CH2O)n

  22. PHOTOSYNTHESIS Light-Dependent Reaction Light & Water Water ATP NADH Carbon Fixation (Calvin Cycle) Carbon Dioxide sugars

  23. Factors that Affect Photosynthesis AMOUNT OF WATER • ____________________ • Water is one of the raw materials needed, so a • shortage of water can slow or stop photosynthesis Desert plants and conifers that live in dry conditions have a waxy coating on their leaves to prevent water loss. http://www.hononegah.org/departments/Anderson/cactus.JPG

  24. Factors that Affect Photosynthesis TEMPERATURE • Photosynthesis enzymes function best between 0° C - 35° C • At temperatures above or below this range, • photosynthesis will slow or stop • Conifers in winter may carry out • photosynthesis only occasionally http://www.sustland.umn.edu/maint/images/evergreen10.jpg

  25. Factors that Affect Photosynthesis LIGHT INTENSITY • ____________________ • More light increases rate of photosynthesis • up to a certain level until plant reaches its • maximum rate of photosynthesis See effect of light experiment http://www.teachnet.ie/foneill/exper.htm http://206.173.89.42/REALTYWITHALOHA_COM/piphoto/funny%20sun%20with%20sunglasses.gif

  26. SOUTH DAKOTA SCIENCE STANDARDS • Chapter 8 - Photosynthesis: • The students will be able to: • explain the biochemical processes that a plant uses in photosynthesis • explain the role ADP-ATP cycle has within the chloroplast of the cell (9-12.L.1.1) • explain the light reaction (9-12.L.1.1) • explain the steps of photophosphorylation and the Calvin Cycle (9-12.L.1.1)

  27. SOUTH DAKOTA CORE SCIENCE STANDARDS LIFE SCIENCE:Indicator 1: Understand the fundamental structures, functions, classifications, and mechanisms found in living things • 9-12.L.1.1. Students are able to relate cellular functions and processes to specialized structures within cells. • Photosynthesis and respiration • ATP-ADP energy cycle Role of enzymes Mitochondria Chloroplasts

  28. Core High School Life SciencePerformance Descriptors

  29. SOUTH DAKOTA ADVANCED SCIENCE STANDARDS LIFE SCIENCE:Indicator 1: Understand the fundamental structures, functions, classifications, and mechanisms found in living things. • 9-12.L.1.1A. Students are able to explain the physical and chemical processes of photosynthesis and cell respiration and their importance to plant and animal life. (SYNTHESIS) • Examples: photosystems, photophosphorylation, Calvin Cycle and Krebs Cycle

  30. Light Dependent reactions Part 1 See videoLIGHT-DEPENDENT REACTION Light Dependent reactions Part 2 Calvin Cycle