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  1. UNIT 7 4 ways how people use the mass media

  2. HOW PEOPLE USE THE MASS MEDIA 4 ways how people use the mass media: • Cognition • Diversion • Social utility • Withdrawal

  3. 1. COGNITION • Cognition is the act of coming to know something. When a person uses a massmedium to obtain information about something, then he or she is using the medium in acognitive way. Clearly, the individual's cognitive use of a medium is directly parallel tothe surveillance function at the macroanalytical level.

  4. COGNITION • At the individual level, researchershave noted that two different types of cognitive functions are performed: • One using the media to keep upwith information on currentevents, while the other using the media to learnabout things in general or thingsthat relate to a person's generalcuriosity.

  5. COGNITION • Reasons people use media to keep up with current events: • I want to keep up with what the government is doing. • I want to understand what is going on in the world. • I want to know what political leaders are doing. • Reasons of using media to learnabout things in general or relate to a person's generalcuriosity: • I want to learn how to do things I've never done before • I want to satisfy my curiosity • The media make me want to learn more about things • The media give me ideas.

  6. 2. DIVERSION • 3 types of diversion: • Stimulation/Seeking relief from boredom or the routine activities of everyday life • Relaxation/escape from the pressures and problems of day-to-day existance • Emotional release

  7. DIVERSION • 3 types of diversion (cont…) • Stimulation • Many people state that they watch, read or listen simply to pass the time. • The media have taken advantage of this need to avoid boredom in many creative ways: • Some airlines provide audio and video entertainment during long flights. • Advertisers are now found on walls and the backs of stall doors in rest rooms.

  8. DIVERSION 3 types of diversion (cont…) • Relaxation • Watching American Idol or reading People magazine represents a pleasant diversion from the frustrations of everyday life. • Emotional release • This form is the most complex. • The use of the media for emotional release is fairly obvious. People goes to theaters to watch Scream, The Ring, etc and screamed their lungs out. • Tearjerkers also drawn crowds. Titanic, and Pearl Harbour, for example, have prompted thousands, perhaps millions, to cry their eyes out.

  9. DIVERSION • Why do audiences cheer when Liverpool wins? • Probably because people enjoy a certain amount of emotional release. People feel better after a good scream or good cry.

  10. 3. SOCIAL UTILITY Types of social utility: • Conversational currency • The media provide a common ground for social conversations, and many people use things that they have read, seen or heard as topics for discussion when talking with others. • Have you ever talked with a friend about a TV program? • Have you ever discussed a current movie or the latest record you heard on the radio? • Overcome loneliness

  11. 4. WITHDRAWAL • At times, people use the mass media to create a barrier between themselves and other people or activities. The media help people avoid certain chores that should be done. • In this case, attending to mass media content was defined as a socially appropriate behaviour that should not be interrupted. It’s your turn to clean the house I can’t. I want to finish watching this program. You do it.

  12. WITHDRAWAL • People use the media to create a buffer zone between themselves and other people.

  13. DISCUSSION • Why do you watch TV? • Why do you go to movies? • Can you find any more current examples of linkage, media dysfunction, interpretation, etc.?