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Burn, and Burn Management

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Burn, and Burn Management

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  1. Burn, and Burn Management Dr.AdnanGelidan FRCS( C ), FACS Assistant Professor Of Surgery Plastic Surgery KSU

  2. Definition • Injury By Chemical, Electrical, Or Thermal sufficient to cause disruption, denaturation, or even tissue death

  3. Epidemiology • Males>Females • 2 peaks at : • 0-5yrs • 25-35yrs • 80% of burns are less than 20%TBSA • Pediatrics • Scald Burn >80% • Account for 45% of Hospital Admission • 33% are due to child ubuse • Three main risk factors: • Age greater than 60 • Greater than 40% TBSA • Presence of inhalational injury

  4. Pathophysiology • Zone of coagulations • Zone of stasis • Zone of hyperemia

  5. Burn Classification • By thickness • By degree • By TBSA

  6. 1st Degree Burn • Damage to the epidermis only • No Need for admission • Heal with in 5 – 7 days • Needs only analgesia

  7. 2nd degree Burn • Superficial Partial thickness • Epidermis and upper dermis • Painful • BLISTER • Heal with in 2 weeks • Deep partial thickness • Epidermis and most of the dermis • Treat like 3rd degree burn • Not painful • Rarely Blister • Prolonged inflammatory phase cause scarring

  8. 3rd Degree Burn • Epidermis and total dermis • Not painful • No Blister • Marpel like appearance • Thrombosed Veins • Cause significant Scarring • Need surgery for treatment

  9. 4th Degree Burn • Injury Extend to the under-laying structures • Muscle, Fascia, Bone • Charring of the tissue

  10. Burn Management • ABCs - Life preservation • History: • Agent of injury • Medical co-morbidities • Physical exam: • Inhalational component? • Estimation of depth • Determination: Severity of injury and triage/transfer • Irrigation and debridement of wounds

  11. Inhalation Burn • The mechanisms of inhalation injury can be divided into three broad areas • Inhalation of products of combustion • Carbon monoxide inhalation • Direct thermal injury to the upper aero-digestive tract • Sings Of Inhalation Burn • A flame burn occurring in a closed space • Singed nasal hairs • facial or oropharyngeal burn • expectoration of carbonaceous sputum • Signs of upper respiratory obstruction—such as crowing, stridor, or air hunger

  12. Burn Management • Non – Surgical • Tetanus Vaccine • Fluid • Nutrition • Physiotherapy • Dressing • Surgical • Escharotomy • Debridemant • Grafting

  13. Burn Fluid Resusitation • BarklandFromula • Wt in Kg X TBSA % X 4cc • 1st ½ in the 1st 8 hrs and 2nd ½ in the next 16 hrs • Use R/L • Modified Brooke • Wt in Kg X TBSA % X 2cc • Hypertonic Saline • 250-300meq • Decrease the fluid requirement • Require regular Na monitoring

  14. Burn Fluid Resusitation • IVF indicated in burns > 15%TBSA • Any other burn can be managed by the maintinance IVF • Children will need the maintinance IVF add to there fluid resusitations • 100ml / kg / 24hr 1st 10 kg • 50ml / kg / 24hr 2nd 10kg • 20ml / kg / 24hr 3rd on kg

  15. Nutrition • High protein diet • VitC • Zinc • Multi-Vitamines

  16. Physiotherapy • Splints • Range Of motion Exercise

  17. Escharotomy

  18. Escharotomy

  19. Debridement, and Skin Graft

  20. Chemical Burn • ATLS • Remove the etiology • Including cloth • Irrigation • Ensure no Inhalation, GI involvment, OccularInvolvment • Antidote if available • Burn Treatment • Acid Vs. Alkali

  21. Electrical Burn • High Voltage Vs. Low Voltage • ATLS • Management • IVF add 30% to TBSA • Cardiac • Kidney • Air/Way • Fasciotomy • Burn Management