General characteristics • Much calmer period in the child’s development: growth is steady but slow • The 3-year-old may still have the prominent potbelly of toddlerhood but will slim down over the next few years. • During preschool years, both boys & girls slim down as trunks of their bodies lengthen. • Although their heads are still somewhat large for their bodies, by end of preschool years most children have lost their top-heavy look
Biological development • The average child gains about 2.3 kg per year and grows 6.75 – 7.5 cm/ year • The average weight is 14.6 kg at 3 years, 16.7 kg at 4 years and 18.7 kg at 5 years • The average height is 95 cm at 3 years, 103cm at 4 years and 110cm at 5 years • Motor development consists of increases in strength and refinement of previously learned skills
Gross motor development • Walking, running, climbing and jumping are well established by 36 months • By age of 3 the preschooler rides a tricycle, walks on tiptoe, balances on one foot for a few seconds and broad jumps • By age of 4: skips and hops proficiently on one foot and catch a ball reliably • By age of 5: the child skips on alternate feet, jumps rope.
Fine motor development • Drawing shows several advancements in the perception of shape and the development of fine muscle coordination • The 3-year-old child copies a circle and imitate a cross and vertical and horizontal lines.
Fine motor development • The 3-year-old is not able to draw a complete human figure but draws a round circle, later adds facial features, and by age 5 or 6 years can draw several parts (head, arms, legs, body & facial features
The Brain • Brain & head grow more rapidly than other part of body at a rate in early childhood less rapid than during infancy • By time children have reached 3 years of age brain is ¾’s of its adult size • By age 5 it has reached 9/10’s of its adult size • Mylineation process where nerve cells are covered & insulated with layer of fat cells having effect of increasing speed of information traveling through nervous system
Visual Perception • Only toward end of early childhood are most children’s eye muscles adequately developed to allow them to move their eyes efficiently across a series of letters • Due to young children’s lack of motor coordination, they may trip or produce poor artwork • Functional Amblyopia know as ‘lazy eye’ resulting when one eye is used less than other- sometimes requires surgery
Psychosocial development • Developing a sense of initiative • Initiative means a positive response to the world's challenges, taking on responsibilities, learning new skills, feeling purposeful. • Parents can encourage initiative by encouraging children to try out their ideas. We should accept and encourage fantasy and curiosity and imagination. This is a time for play, not for formal education.
Psychosocial development • Stage of energetic learning • The capacity for moral judgment has arrived. A parent has the responsibility, socially, to encourage the child to "grow up -- you're not a baby anymore!" But if this process is done too harshly and too abruptly, the child learns to feel guilty about his or her feelings (over restriction and fear of wrongdoing)
Cognitive development • Preoperational Stage: Ages 2 – 7 • Preconceptual phase: ages 2 – 4 • Intuitive phase: ages 4 – 7 • Now that child has mental representations, begins to utilize symbols • Egocentrism – thinks everyone experiences the world exactly as they do (Single view point) • Animistic: Inanimate objects have lifelike qualities just like themselves • E.g., sun is angry at clouds and chased them away
Moral Development • Preconventional level: • Punishment obedience orientation: 2 – 4 • Naïve instrumental orientation (Naïve hedonism): 4 – 7 actions are directed toward satisfying their needs. Instrument of reciprocity “you do something for me and I’ll do something for you”
Language Development 4 Years • Knows names of familiar animals • Names common objects in picture books or magazines • Knows one or more colors • They talk constantly regardless of whether anyone is listening to or answering them 5 Years • Can count to ten • Speech should be completely intelligible, in spite of articulation problems (stuttering) • Speech on the whole should be grammatically correct
Play • At 4 years: associative play: group play in similar or identical activities but without rigid organization or rules • Imitative, imaginative and dramatic play: dress-up clothes, dolls, housekeeping toys, dollhouses, telephones, trains, trucks, planes • Imaginary playmates are so much a part of this age period • At 5 years cooperative play: more realistic activities, where the preschooler can obey rules and regulations
Sleep and Sleep Problems • Average preschooler sleeps approximately 12 hours a night • Somnambulism (sleepwalking) during deepest stage of sleep common in about 15% of children and is related to social rather developmental factors
Nightmaresfrightening dreams that awaken sleeper more often toward morning than just after child has gone to bed • Night Terrors sudden arousal from sleep & intense fear accompanied by number of physiological reactions: rapid heart rate & breathing, loud screams, heavy perspiration & physical movement
Sleep and Sleep Problems • Recommendation: • a consistent bedtime ritual that signal readiness for bed • Keeping a light on in the room • Providing transitional objects such as a favorite toy usually soft & cuddly • Helping children to slow down before bedtime
Nutrition • Nutritional requirements for preschoolers are fairly similar to those of toddlers • The requirements for calories: 90 kcal/kg, average daily intake of 1800 calories • Fluid requirements 100 ml/kg daily • Protein requirements are 1.2 g/kg daily
Nutrition Daily Eating Routines • 3-year-old - fairly good appetite but prefers small portions, will feed self independently • 4-year-old - fluctuating appetite dislikes certain foods, likes to help in preparation of meal • 5-year-old - eats well, but not every meal likes familiar foods & likes make own breakfast.
Fears • Occurs because their imagination is so active. • Fear of dark. • Fear of mutilation (simple injury, painful procedures). • Fear of separation.
Common Health Problems • 1. Infectious disorders: • Communicable diseases: Chicken Pox, Diphtheria, Measles, Pertussis, …etc. • Conjunctivitis. • Stomatitis. • 2. Ingestion of injurious agents: • Cosmetics and personal care products, cleaning products, plants, foreign bodies, gasoline. • Heavy metal poisoning (mercury, iron, lead) • 3. Enuresis • 4. Tonsillitis: