Information Processing:Part I MKT 750 Dr. West
Agenda • Information Processing Framework • Exposure • Attention • Comprehension • Retention • McGuire’s Model of Ad Effectiveness • Measuring effectiveness • Tactical Decisions
Consumer Information Processing Stimuli Exposure Attention Comprehension Acceptance Retention Purchase
Purchase Retention Yielding/ Acceptance Attention Comprehension Exposure … p(E)·p(A)·p(C)·p(Y)·p(R) p(E)·p(A) p(E) Success: .8 .8 x .7=.56 .8 x .7 x .7=.39 .8 x .7 x .7 x .6=.24 .8 x .7 x .7 x .6 x .8 =.19 .2 =.44 =.61 =.76 =.81 Failure: Measuring Advertising Effectiveness • McGuire Model Testing Ad Effectiveness
Gaining Exposure • This occurs when there is physical proximity to a stimulus • Selective exposure • Consumers deliberately try to avoid our attempts to interact with them • Advertising, Direct mail, Telemarketing
Gaining Exposure • What’s a marketer to do? • Make your message involving • Taster’s Choice “Brewing Romance” Campaign (circa 1990) • Product positioned as “tasting closest to fresh brewed” • McCann-Erickson was hired to kick up the emotional connection to the brand
“Brewing Romance” Campaign • UK Campaign quickly adopted an avid following • British tabloids chronicled the series • Viewers wrote in for autographs • Campaign lasted for six years • Sales of Gold Blend soared by 40 percent. • Ended with Sharon and Tony wedding and driving happily off into the sunset • The campaign was expanded to the US, Canada, Chile, Australia, New Zealand, and Japan
“Brewing Romance” Campaign • US Campaign launched in 1991 • Generated a reaction similar to the UK • The debut of each new “episode” became a major media event, often premiering on network shows such as “Good Morning America.” • In February 1998, Taster's Choice ran a contest. The results were announced in Soap Opera Digest
Gaining Exposure • What’s a marketer to do? • Nontraditional approach • BMW’s re-launch of the Mini Cooper in 2002 • “Giving a small car big 'tude: cute enough for kids to ride, small enough to fit on top of an SUV and sexy enough to be a Playboy centerfold, the new BMW Mini launched with many guerrilla twists and turns.” Brandweek • BMW assigned the new unit a paltry $40 million budget and staff just big enough to fill, well, a Mini.
Nontraditional Approach… • BMW’s re-launch of the Mini Cooper in 2002 • Kerri Martin was assigned to be the guardian of the brand’s soul. She refused to consider a traditional launch for the car. Instead she looked for novel ways to “create buzz” about the brand. • Target Market: People who see themselves as risk takers, nonconformists, and adventure seekers. These individuals were not defined by their age but by their spirit. • Objectives: Reach 25% brand awareness within one year, and sell 20,000 cars.
Non-traditional Approach… • Magazine ads broke the mold • Mini is the first automobile to actually win bragging rights as Playboy's Playmate of the Month in June. Ads ran biographical photos of Mini's "youth" in London, complete with cartoons on the flip-page.
Results • In the six months preceding the launch, the website registered 210,000 leads. • 55,000 visitors signed up to receive the e-mail newsletter • Brand awareness levels went from zero to 25% in nine months, and up to 67% by June 2003. • Exceeded its sales goal, with 24,590 cars sold in nine months.
Can there be too much exposure? • Overexposure • When your brand loses it coolness • Habituation • When a stimulus becomes familiar it loses it’s attention getting power • Ads lose half their effectiveness after accumulating 1,000 GRPs (approx 10 exposures) • Products are less attractive when everyone else owns one
Avoiding Overexposure • Avoid overexposure through • Limited availability (scarcity) • Harry Potter • Use different ad executions carrying the same message • Absolut Vodka
Tactical Decisions • Gaining Exposure • Channel/Medium:The general category for message delivery • broadcast (TV, radio), print (magazines, newspaper), direct mail & internet, outdoor … • Vehicle: The specific message carrier • The Apprentice, WSJ, COTA busses • Scheduling: How is the media budget distributed? • reach and frequency, breadth of coverage, seasonality
Consumer Information Processing Stimuli Exposure Attention Comprehension Acceptance Retention Purchase Pre-attentive Processing
Turning Exposure Into Attention • Attention can occur when there is activation of one or more of our five senses. • Each of our sensory receptors has an activation threshold • Weber’s Law: JND • The amount of change necessary to be noticed is directly related to the intensity of the original stimulus
Voluntary Attention • This refers to the conscious allocation of processing capacity to a stimulus. • Selective Attention • Occurs when a stimulus is in line with current goals or needs • Such attention is selective due to the plethora of messages we are exposed to.
Involuntary Attention • Occurs due to a built in “novelty monitoring” mechanism • Evolutionary hypothesis – survival was best insured by attending to unusual events in the environment • Triggers: • Size, Color, Contrast, Motion, Sounds are noticed • Appeals to our hedonic side (food & sex) are also noticed
Tactical Decisions • Getting Attention • Source:The person/organization sending the message • Who: Spokesperson, Celebrity Endorser, Salesperson … • Characteristics: Attractiveness, Likeability, Familiarity, Similarity, Identification, Trustworthiness, Expertise, Credibility
Tactical Decisions • Getting Attention • Message Execution:The technique or style utilized in communication • Humor, Emotions, Fear Appeal, Informational, Demonstration, Testimonial, Lifestyle, Jingle… • Comparative vs. Two-sided • Message Elements: Features of the message • Pictures versus words, color & contrast, size & isolation, novelty & motion, music
Is Getting Attention Enough? • Attention may be short lived • You have to use attention well once you have it • Attention should be used in the service of building the brand, or attaining other strategic goals
Comprehension • Refers to the meaning we assign to a sensory stimulus • The most crucial process in CB because… • What consumers perceive and remember determines their actions!
Comprehension • Perceptions are often the heart of marketing issues/problems. • Olay – P&G faced issues with “Oil of Olay” being perceived as oily and old
Comprehension • Gestalt Principles: • Closure – we have a tendency to complete a figure, or fill in the gaps • Processing effort – the effort devoted to interpreting a stimulus leads to better comprehension and memory • Figure/Ground – perceptions differ depending upon what the individual sees as figure (dominant) versus ground (background).
Tactical Decisions • Improving Comprehension • Channel/Medium: High Involvement (print, internet) vs. Low Involvement (TV and radio) • Source: Distraction and Affect Transfer • Message Content: Complexity, Ambiguity • Scheduling: Repetition
Information Processing: Stimuli Exposure InvolvementAttentionMemory Motivation Ability Comprehension Opportunity Acceptance Retention • Sensory • Short Term • Long Term
Tactical Decisions • Fostering Yielding/Acceptance • Source: Credibility, Similarity & Likeability • Message Execution: Stirring emotions, telling both sides of the story • Scheduling: Mere exposure effects • Improved liking • Improved recall • Improved acceptance
The Importance of Memory • Marketers use memory-based criteria to judge the effectiveness of their efforts • Ad claims – e.g. day after recall • Package and brand recognition • Beliefs and brand associations are indicators of “brand equity”
Incoming Information Sensory Memory Pertinence Short Term Memory Encoding (Rehearsal) Retrieval (Cues) Long Term Memory Encoding & Retrieval Exposure Signal Strength Attention Retention
Facilitating Encoding • Elaboration • Closure • Repetition & Rehearsal • Jingles • Generating Affect • Humor (tricky) • Personal Linkages • Autobiographical Memories
Facilitating Encoding • A Picture is Worth a 1000 Words • Memory for faces of high school classmates was 75% correct up to 40 years after graduation • Recognition rates for 600 ads! (Shepard) Time Delay 0 2 hrs 3 days 7 days 120 days % correct 98% 99% 92% 87% 58%
Feelings • Ads can evoke feelings or emotions • Hallmark, McDonalds, Kodak • There is a bias toward retrieving positive memories which result in… • More feelings during an ad • More favorable attitude toward the ad and the brand
Facilitating Retrieval • Encoding-specificity • Memory is context dependent, thus memory performance is improved when contextual cues present at encoding are retrieval are the same
Summary Familiarity breeds liking while tedium invites argumentation and criticism Use attention well (to build your brand) once you have it, or it will be short lived Advertising is often used to set expectations which influence our experiences A brand’s message must remain the “figure” and shouldn’t be overshadowed by other elements Exposure Attention Comprehension Retention
Assignment • Read Chapter 16