Benu Abbas https://www.google.com/search?q=images+pictures+banu+umayyah&rlz=1C1RNRC_enUS506US537&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjE-aqlzfrUAhUCVj4KHc0XBIUQ7AkIMg&biw=1600&bih=785#tbm=isch&q=images+pictures+of+rulers+of+banu+abbas&imgdii=QzZzRrrdP3G03M:&imgrc=5HrvOhxNYnh0dM: Slide Show by Dr. A.S. Hashim
Umayya Khilaafah • The Umayya Khilaafah exhibited four main social classes: • Muslim Arabs • Muslim non-Arabs (clients of the Muslim Arabs) • Non-Muslim free persons (Christians, Jews, and Zoroastrians) • Slaves • The Muslim Arabs were at the top of the society and saw it as their duty to rule over the conquered areas. • Even though Islam teaches the equality of all Muslims, the Arab Muslims held themselves in higher esteem than Muslim non-Arabs, and generally did not mix with other Muslims.
Umayya Khilaafah • The inequality of Muslims in the Umayya Empire led to social unrest. • As Islam spread, more and more of the Muslim population was constituted of non-Arabs. • This caused tension as the new converts were not given the same rights as Muslim Arabs. • Also, as conversions increased, tax revenues from non-Muslims decreased to dangerous lows. • These issues continued to grow until they helped cause the Abbasi Revolt in the 740s.
Last Years of Benu Umayya • There were numerous rebellions against Benu Umayya, • as well as splits within the Umayya ranks, which notably included the rivalry between Yaman and Qays tribes. • The killing of Imam Husain solidified the Shi’a-Sunni split. • Eventually, supporters of the Banu Hashim and the supporters of the lineage of Ali united to bring down the Umayya in 750..
Banu Abbas Dynasty • Early Period • Saffah, Mansoor, Mahdi, Haadi, Rashid, Al-Amin, Al-Ma’Moon • Late Period • Mu’tasim, Waathiq, Mu’tawakkil, Al-Mun’tasir, and 28 other rulers in succession.
Profile of Al-Saffah • In one far-reaching, historic decision, al-Saffah established Anbar as the new capital of the Khilaafah, • ending the dominance of Damascus in the Islamic political world, • and Iraq would now become the seat of Abbasi power for many centuries. • Later tales recount that, concerned that there would be a return of rival Umayya power, • as-Saffah invited all of the remaining members of the Umayya family to a dinner party • where he had them clubbed to death before the first course, which was then served to the hosts.
Profile of Al-Saffah (The Bloodthirsty) • al-Saffah is widely viewed by historians as being a mild victor. • Jews, Nestorian Christians, and Persians were well represented in his government and in succeeding Abbasi administrations. • Education was also encouraged, and the first paper mills, (staffed by skilled Chinese prisoners captured at the Battle of Talas), were set up in Samarkand. • al-Saffah reformed the army, • which included non-Muslims and non-Arabs • in sharp contrast to Benu Umayya who refused any soldiers of either type. • al-Saffah selected the gifted Abu Muslim as his military commander, an officer who would serve until 755 in the Abbasi army.
Al-Mansoor • In 762 he founded Baghdad, called Madinat al-Salaam • which became the core of the Imperial capital • During his reign, Islamic literature and scholarship began to emerge, • al-Mansoor formed a committee, (mostly of Syriac-speaking Christians), with the purpose of translating extant Greek works into Arabic • Many Persians came to play a crucial role in the Empire, both culturally as well as politically. • When stingy al-Mansoor died, the Khalifa’s treasury contained 600,000 dirhams and fourteen million Dinars
Baghdad: al-Mansoor • Baghdad built from 142/760, to 148-768 (It took six years to found Baghdad).
Stinginess of al-Mansoor • Al-Mansoor was a stingy and narrow-minded man • He questioned his agents and representatives for small amount of money. • As a result, he was known as Al-Dawaniqi (Daniq means a very small of money) • It is said when Abd al-Malik b. Marwan built Al-Aqsa mosque, he covered the doors with gold and silver, • however when Al-Mansur al-Dawaniqi intended to repair the mosque, he ordered to take out the gold and silver from doors and make coins with them.
Al-Mansoor and Al-Hasan Progeny • Al-Mansoor was the first man who brought conflicts between Abbasi and Alawi in the time of his Khilaafah, while they had a close relationship before. • Also Al-Mansoor ordered to arrest and imprison all the descendants of Imam al-Hasan, (about one hundred) • He ordered to bring them to Al-Hayra and imprison them in a very harsh manner. • They were shackled, malnourished, and many died as a result • Some were even buried alive.
Haroon Al-Rashid • Al-Rashid ruled from 786 to 809, during the peak of the Islamic Golden Age. • His time was marked by scientific, cultural, and religious prosperity • Islamic art and music also flourished significantly during his reign. • The legendary Bayt al-Hikma ("House of Wisdom") was founded during his rule (as a private library). • Baghdad began to flourish as a center of knowledge, culture and trade. • One factual tale is the story of the clock that was among various presents that Haroon sent to Charlemagne. • The presents were carried by the returning Frankish mission that came to offer Haroon friendship in 799. • Charlemagne and his retinue deemed the clock to be a magic for the sounds it emanated and the tricks it displayed every time an hour ticked.
Al-Ma’Moon • In A.H. 201 (817 AD) al-Ma'Moon forced Imam Ridha to move from Medina to Maru. • Imam Ridha, (the Eighth descendant of Prophet Muhammad), was named his heir. • This was not easily accepted by the Abbasi leaders but was widely seen as a political move by al-Ma'Moon • since Al-Ma’Moon was fearful of the widespread sympathy towards the Ahlul Bayt. • Al-Ma’Moon’s plan was to keep watch over Imam Ridha. • However, his plans did not succeed due to the growing popularity of Ali Al-Ridha in Merv. • People from all over the Muslim world traveled to meet the prophet's grandson and listen to his teachings and guidance.
Al-Ma’Moon and the Byzantines • Al-Ma'Moon's relations with Byzantines are marked by his efforts in the translation of Greek philosophy and science. • Al-Ma'Moon gathered scholars of many religions at Baghdad, • whom he treated magnificently and with tolerance. • He sent an emissary to the Byzantine Empire to collect the most famous manuscripts there, • and had them translated into Arabic. • As part of his peace treaty with the Byzantine Emperor, Al-Ma'Moon was to receive a number of Greek manuscripts annually, • one of these being Ptolemy's astronomical work, the Almagest.
Bayt al-Hikmah • Al-Ma’Moon founded an academy called the House of Wisdom (Bayt al-Ḥikmah) to which the translators, most often Christians, were attached. • He also imported manuscripts of particularly important works that did not exist in the Islamic countries from Byzantium. • Developing an interest in the sciences as well, Al-Ma’Moon established observatories at which Muslim scholars could verify the astronomic knowledge handed down from antiquity. • The House of Wisdom was a major intellectual center during the Islamic Golden Age. • Al-Ma'Moon is credited with bringing many well-known scholars to share information, ideas, and culture in the House of Wisdom.
Bayt al-Hikmah • Based in Baghdad from the 9th to 13th centuries, beside Muslim scholars, people of Jewish or Christian background were allowed to study here. • Scholars associated with the House of Wisdom also made many remarkable original contributions to diverse fields. • The House was an unrivalled center for the study of humanities, mathematics, astronomy, medicine, alchemy and chemistry, zoology, and geography and cartography. • Drawing primarily on Greek, (but also Syriac, Indian and Persian texts) , the scholars accumulated a great collection of world knowledge, and built on it through their own discoveries. • By the middle of the ninth century, the House of Wisdom had the largest selection of books in the world. • It was destroyed in the sack of the city following the Mongol Siege of Baghdad (1258).
Banu Abbas Dynasty • Early Period Discussed above • Late Period • Mu’tasim, Waathiq, Mu’tawakkil, Al-Mun’tasir, Al-Mu’tazz, and 28 other rulers in succession.
The synthesis of Eastern and Western ideas and of new thought with old, brought about great advances in: medicine, mathematics, physics, astronomy, geography, architecture, art, literature, and history. ADVANCES IN LEARNING:
Al-Aqsa Mosque: • The mosque was originally a small prayer house built by Omar the second Khalifa, • but was rebuilt and expanded by the Umayya Khalifa Abdul Malik and finished by his son al-Walid in 705 CE. • The mosque was completely destroyed by an earthquake in 746 and rebuilt by the Abbasi Khalifa al-Mansoor in 754. • His successor al-Mahdi rebuilt it again in 780. • Another earthquake destroyed most of al-Aqsa in 1033, • but two years later the Fatimi Khalifa Ali al-Zahir built another mosque which has stood to the present day.
Hulagu and Baghdad • Hulagu besieged Baghdad, which surrendered after 12 days. • During the next week, the Mongols sacked Baghdad, • committing numerous atrocities and • destroyed the Abbasi' vast libraries, including the House of Wisdom. • The Mongols executed Al-Musta'sim and massacred many residents of the city, which was left greatly depopulated. • The siege is considered to mark the end of the Islamic Golden Age, which was also marked by many cultural achievements
Baghdad: Killing in Abundance • Citizens attempted to flee, but were intercepted by Mongol soldiers who killed in abundance, • sparing neither women nor children. • Martin Sicker writes that close to 90,000 people may have been killed. • Other estimates go much higher. • Wassaf claims the loss of life was several hundred thousand. • Ian Frazier of The New Yorker says estimates of the death toll have ranged from 200,000 to a million.
Abdullah Wassaf Describes • "They swept through the city like hungry falcons attacking a flight of doves, • or like raging wolves attacking sheep, • with loose reins and shameless faces, • murdering and spreading terror... • beds and cushions made of gold and encrusted with jewels were cut to pieces with knives and torn to shreds. • Those hiding behind the veils of the great Harem were dragged...through the streets and alleys, • each of them becoming a plaything...as the population died at the hands of the invaders." (Abdullah Wassaf as cited by David Morgan)
Persian painting (14th century) of Hülegü's army besieging a city. Note use of the siege engine
DECLINE: By the 11th century, however, the Arabs began losing their dominance in the Islamic world. The Seljuk Turks conquered Syria, Palestine, and much of Persia. In the 11th and 12th centuries, the Muslims lost Sicily and most of Spain to Christian knights. In the 13th and 14th centuries, Mongols devastated Muslim lands. In the 15th century, the collapse of the Mongol empire left the way open for the Ottoman Turks, who reached their height in the 16th century. DECLINE:
Be in Allah’s Care Thank you and may Allah Bless you. Dr. A.S. Hashim