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This morning we turn our attention to Matthew’s Gospel. PowerPoint Presentation
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This morning we turn our attention to Matthew’s Gospel.

This morning we turn our attention to Matthew’s Gospel.

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This morning we turn our attention to Matthew’s Gospel.

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  1. This morning we turn our attention to Matthew’s Gospel. As you will see, Matthew builds on Mark, and again assumes the need to solidify the churches in a time of great transition.

  2. With Matthew, we are in meta-narrative territory. That is, the shift from Israel to the Church is underway. Can it be demonstrated that this was in the cards (OT) all along?

  3. My beef illustration Casseroles with hamburger (including tacos) Hamburgers Steaks Ribeye with bone in (Cowboy Steak) Genesis, Deuteronomy, Isaiah, Romans, Hebrews, Revelation, and Matthew

  4. Suppose you were a key leader back then. . . Peter and Paul have died, many churches are saying, “this was a wrong course, we need to get back in the fold of Israel” . . . how would you try to convince them that what happened is God’s plan?

  5. The Mastering the Scriptures Collections • The actual process of “mastering the Scriptures” presumes the first principles. The Gospels begins the collections, and the rest are ideally studied in the order listed below. • Prerequisites: • The First Principles Series,establishing the churches in the teaching (the Didache) • The Gospels: Solidifying the Kerygmatic Communities

  6. Series 1: The Gospels From Mastering the Scriptures Collections • Book 1: The Gospels: Solidifying the Kerygmatic Communities • Book 2: Mark: Announcing the New Community • Book 3: Matthew: I Will Build My Church • Book 4: Luke–Acts: All That Jesus Accomplished • Book 5: John: The World Will Know We Are One

  7. Book 1: The Gospels Solidifying the New Kerygmatic Communities Session 1: From Jesus to the Gospels Session 2: Greco-Roman Biography Session 3: Intent of the Gospels Session 4: Announcing His New Community Session 5: Commissioning His New Community Session 6: Reshaping Our Lives

  8. Book 1, Session 3: Intent of the Gospels • Study the Scriptures • The argument • The Gospels in canonical context: John 16:12–14 • The Gospels are tools to stabilize the churches in the Kerygma • Luke 1:1–4 • 1 Peter 1:1–3; 5:12–14 • The canonical intent of the Gospels

  9. Book 1, Session 3: Intent of the Gospels Study the Scriptures Paul’s team (38+) Gentile churches (3 missionary journeys) Asia Minor Network (7 churches) Jewish churches (diaspora) John Peter and Mark

  10. Book 1, Session 3: Intent of the Gospels Study the Scriptures General Canonical Intent of the Gospels To stabilize the churches in the Kerygma (and the Didache, for that matter, if you include Luke) at a time when the Apostles were leaving the scene, the Jewish churches were in danger of going back to Judaism, and the Gentile churches needed to understand very clearly their origins and Old Testament roots, through an eye-witness based account of the story of the proclamation of Jesus, as now seen through the eyes of the Apostles who had received the clear teaching Jesus promised after He left.

  11. Book 2: The Gospel of Mark Announcing the New Community Session 1: The Intention of Mark Session 2: Jesus’ Miracles and Parables Session 3: Jesus’ Teaching: Explaining the Kingdom of God Session 4: The Heart of the Kerygma Story Session 5: Commissioning His New Community Session 6: Reshaping Our Lives

  12. Book 2, Session 1: The Intention of Mark Introduction After having studied the general intent of the Gospels in book one, we turned our attention to each Gospel, beginning with the Gospel of Mark. At one level, we saw that the intent of the Gospel of Mark was simple, and probably contained in the very first sentence of the book. Yet, at another level, to grasp the intent of Mark, we needed to hold the entire book in our mind at one time and all that had gone on with the churches since they were formed after the exit of Jesus in Acts 1. We needed to understand the place of this Gospel in the unfolding story of the progress of the gospel and where this writing fit in the documents written by the Apostles and their co-workers.

  13. Book 2, Session 1: The Intention of Mark Introduction Remember, Jesus promised to deliver the Teaching to the Apostles. This Teaching was delivered to the churches as letters from the Apostles, especially from Paul. And then the Gospels were written to the churches, after all of that. In the first session, we focused on getting a handle on Mark’s intention in writing this Gospel, by examining the essence of Jesus’ big announcement, which was preceded by John the Baptist, and then by reflecting on the author, the author’s situation,and the situation of the churches it would be circulated amongst.

  14. Book 2, Session 1: The Intention of Mark Study the Scriptures At one level, Mark is simply an expansion of the kerygmatic statement, shaped by Peter and the Apostles (Peter’s five sermons in Acts) and received by Paul and others in statement form (as seen in 1 Corinthians 15:1–6).

  15. Book 2, Session 1: The Intention of Mark Study the Scriptures Yet at another level, getting at the intent of the Gospel of Mark and interpreting it correctly is a complex matter that assumes an accurate understanding of all that transpired between the time of Jesus and the writing of this Gospel. It assumes the formation of the “Kerygma” gospel statement; all the teaching Jesus delivered to the Apostles, which they delivered to the churches in letters; and the cultural situation of the new community—the Church—emerging from Judaism and the pressure on Jewish churches to return to Judaism. It assumes reading Mark through this lens. And to understand Mark especially, we must read it through the lens of the letters Peter wrote to his churches near the end of his life.

  16. Book 2, Session 1: The Intention of Mark • Study the Scriptures • Putting it all together then, Mark’s intention for his Gospel, though rather complex, looks like this: • Mark set out to write an eyewitness account based on Peter (yet in his own writing), in Greco-Roman biographical form, which, in light of Peter's letters, was intended at first reading to stabilize the Jewish churches, with clear prophetic awareness that this would be read by all churches (and used by those churches as an eyewitness apologetic as well), thus it ultimately had the wider audience in mind.

  17. This morning we turn our attention to Matthew’s Gospel. As you will see, Matthew builds on Mark, and again assumes the need to solidify the churches in a time of great transition.

  18. Book 3: The Gospel of Matthew I Will Build My Church Session 1: The Intention of Matthew Session 2: A Closer Look: The Sermon on the Mount Session 3: A Closer Look: The Olivet Discourse Session 4: The New Community: I Will Build My Church Session 5: The Great Commission: Go, Baptize, Teach Session 6: Reshaping Our Lives

  19. Session 1: The Intention of Matthew • Study the Scriptures • Read the Passages:Matthew • Think Through the Questions: • What was stated in the prologue (chapters 1 and 2) about Jesus’ relationship to the Old Testament story? What does this tell us, generally, about Mathew’s intention in writing? • In light of what we know about the kerygma (the proclamation) from Peter’s sermons in Acts and from kerygmatic statements in the Apostles’ letters to the churches, in what sense is Matthew structured as a kerygmatic document? In what sense is the storyline kerygmatic? • How do the narrative discourses build on Mark and strengthen their commitment to the gospel delivered to them by the Apostles? How does the extensive use of Old Testament Scriptures strengthen the argument? • How might Matthew be written with the intention of stabilizing Jewish churches in the gospel story, while at the same time be written to be circulated broadly among all the churches?

  20. Session 1: The Intention of Matthew Introduction The definitive work on the genre of the Gospels. It has created a whole conversation and school of scholars building on Burridge’s work. Richard A. Burridge—Dean of King’s College in London.

  21. Session 1: The Intention of Mathew Introduction The Greco-Roman biography conversation

  22. Session 1: The Intention Matthew • Study the Scriptures • By using a "kerygmatic" narrative structure (consistent with the Greco-Roman biographical form, "bios") • From Burridge’s work What Are the Gospels?: A Comparison with Greco-Roman Biography, we see the book of Mark taking the shape of a Greco-Roman biography, but also the shape of a kerygma story. Burridge’soutline is as follows: • Chapters Topic • 1–2 Prologue and Infancy • 3–4 Preparation and beginnings • 5–7 Sermon on the Mount • 8–9 Ministry • 10–11:1 Mission of disciples • 11:2–16 Ministry and conflict • 13:1–52 Parables of the Kingdom • 13:53–17:27 Ministry and Peter’s confession • 18 Christian community • 19–23 Journey to Jerusalem • 24–25 Eschatology • 26–28 Last Supper, Passion and Resurrection

  23. Session 1: The Intention of Matthew Study the Scriptures The prologue (1–2) and the Last Supper, Passion, and Resurrection (26–28) provide the “kerygmatic” framework of the Gospel genre, sort of the bookends. They need to be validated here.

  24. Session 1: The Intention of Matthew Study the Scriptures The proclamation still the issue in Matthew 3 In those days John the Baptist appeared in the wilderness of Judea, proclaiming, 2 “Repent, for the kingdom of heaven has come near.” Matthew 3:1,2 17 From that time Jesus began to proclaim, “Repent, for the kingdom of heaven Matthew 4:17

  25. Session 1: The Intention of Matthew Study the Scriptures All this means that Matthew also (as did Mark) viewed his Gospel as an expansion of the formulaic-like kerygmatic statement delivered by the Apostles to the churches. And his Gospel was a tool to stabilize the churches in the gospel at a time of great transition. Peter and Paul were exiting the scene, the churches were emerging completely from Judaism, and Israel was heading for judgment. So building on the intention statement for the Gospels and Mark in books one and two of this series, Matthew’s intention statement looks something like this:

  26. Session 1: The Intention of Matthew Study the Scriptures To write a Gospel, building on Mark’s, intended to further stabilize Peter’s Jewish network of churches by building a powerful theological treatise, binding the kerygma story and the building of Christ’s church to the Jewish Scriptures, Maintaining Mark’s “kerygmatic” structure, as seen in Greco-Roman “bios” literary style, but organizing his argument around five discourses, preceded by a narrative that sets the stage for interpreting each discourse.

  27. Session 1: The Intention of Matthew • Study the Scriptures • By structuring five discourses as central to his theological argument, preceding each discourse with a narrative section that shapes the interpretation of the discourses themselves. (Narrative Discourse draws on contributions of White and Brown.) • Narrative Discourse 1: Galilee (3:1–7:29) • Narrative Discourse 2: Galilee (8:1–10:42) • Narrative Discourse 3: Galilee (11:1–13:58) • Narrative Discourse 4: Beyond Galilee (13:53–18:35) • Narrative Discourse 5: Judea (19:1–26:46)

  28. Session 1: The Intention of Matthew • Study the Scriptures • Pattern • Narrative Discourse 1: Galilee (3:1–7:29) • Narrative • Sermon • Marker “when Jesus had finished” • Narrative • Narrative (1) • Narrative mixed with short dialogue (2) • Narrative setting for teaching and dialogue (3) • Narrative mixed with much dialogue (4 & 5)

  29. Session 1: The Intention of Matthew Study the Scriptures Narrative Discourse 1: Galilee (3:1–7:29) Narrative: John the Baptist and Jesus came proclaiming a message, “Repent, the Kingdom of God is at hand”—The Sermon is the message. (3:1–4:25) Sermon on the Mount (5:1–7:27) 28 “Now when Jesus had finished saying these things, the crowds were astounded at his teaching, 29 for he taught them as one having authority, and not as their scribes.” 7:28–29

  30. Session 1: The Intention of Matthew Study the Scriptures Narrative Discourse 2: Galilee (8:1–10:42) Narrative mixed with short dialogue: The sick need mercy and will repent; it is very difficult for those needing a physician—illustrating why He gives his mission instructions as He does (8:1–9:38). Sermon: Mission Instructions (10:5–42) “Now when Jesus had finished instructing his twelve disciples, he went on from there to teach and proclaim his message in their cities.” 11:1

  31. Session 1: The Intention of Matthew Study the Scriptures Narrative Discourse 3: Galilee (11:1–13:58) Narrative setting for teaching and dialogue: The narrative shows that the Kingdom will grow among the Gentiles, which will be the locus of his new family. Isaiah shows that this Servant will proclaim the message to the Gentiles (11:1–12:50). Sermon: Parables of the Kingdom (13:1–52) “When Jesus had finished these parables, He left that place.” 13:53

  32. Session 1: The Intention of Matthew Study the Scriptures Narrative Discourse 4: Beyond Galilee (13:53–18:35) Narrative mixed with much dialogue: Rejection and the cross are experienced and predicted, leading to the discourse that repentance and forgiveness of everyone is the key foundation to the new community (13:53–17:27). Sermon: Repentance and Forgiveness in the Church (18:1–35) “When Jesus had finished saying these things, he left Galilee and went to the region of Judea beyond the Jordan.” 19:1

  33. Session 1: The Intention of Matthew Study the Scriptures Narrative Discourse 5: Judea (19:1–26:46) Narrative missed with much dialogue: The narrative shows the reasons for the judgment on the nation of Israel, lamenting over Jerusalem, and why he has turned to a global invitation of the Gentiles (19:1–23:39). Sermon: Judgment on Jerusalem, Israel, and the Nations (24:1–25:46) “When Jesus had finished saying all these things, he said to his disciples, 2 “You know that after two days the Passover is coming, and the Son of Man will be handed over to be crucified.” 26:1

  34. Session 1: The Intention of Matthew • Study the Scriptures • Progression of narratives • Invitation into the kingdom a narrow path • Spreading the message throughout Israel • Future growth of kingdom amongst the Gentiles • Rejection and the cross predicted • Coming judgment on Israel • This is his theological argument, across the narrative and 5 theological treatises.

  35. Session 1: The Intention of Matthew • Study the Scriptures • Rooted in metanarrative of the Old Testament • “This happened in order to fulfill what has been said…” • Birth narrative: 1:11; 2:15, 17, 22 • Passion narrative: 21:4; 26:56; 27:9 • In between: 4:14; 8:17; 12:17; 13:14

  36. Session 1: The Intention of Matthew Study the Scriptures This rooting in the Old Testament metanarrative would have served as a tremendous apologetic to the churches, at this transitional time, and as a very significant stabilizing force.

  37. Session 1: The Intention of Matthew Consult the Scholars “At the same time, Matthew maintains the biographical framework and even enlarges it, beginning with the genealogy of Jesus, which makes him a true son of Abraham (Jesus is truly from Israel), and with the birth narrative, which Matthew binds closely into the Scriptures of Israel. The hermeneutical principle that Matthew uses here is drawn from an apologetic scheme, which argues that the divinity of an event can be demonstrated by its agreement with ancient predictions divine oracles….The scriptural texts quoted with this formula are not drawn from the Septuagint, but are the result of people who knew both Greek and Hebrew, the “School of St. Matthew.”

  38. Session 1: The Intention of Matthew Study the Scriptures “Such scholarly endeavors may have played some role in the controversy with learned rabbis, but they are primarily addressed to the pagan world in order to show that Jesus’ birth, ministry and death belong to a comprehensive eschatological plan of God that is documented in Israel’s Scriptures and is now fulfilled and has become a message that concerns all nations. As the gospel is thus bound to the Scriptures… Introduction to the New Testament, Vol. 2: History and Literature of Early Christianity by Helmut Koester, p. 180

  39. How would Matthew’s gospel serve as a powerful tool in establishing the churches at a time of great transition?

  40. Session 1: The Intention of Matthew • Study the Scriptures • What, then, was the main contribution of Matthew’s Gospel to the churches? In what way were they stabilized? They were given a huge body of truth validating the gospel they had received from the Apostles. • Everything that happened is rooted in the Old Testament Scriptures and predicted by the prophets. • The invitation into the kingdom is by faith, child-like faith. • The kingdom was predicted to grow among the Gentles. • Jesus would be rejected and rise again. • Israel would be judged.

  41. Session 1: The Intention of Matthew • Think Through the Issues • Issue: The value of the Mathew’s eyewitness-based account • Think Through the Issue Before Discussion: • What is the value of Matthew’s eyewitness-based account as the second authoritative account of the Jesus story? What was its value to the community of Jewish churches? • What is its on-going value to churches everywhere? • How do we use the Gospel of Matthew today, in ways other than how it was intended? How is it misused in the Church at large? • How can we take full advantage of its value to us as churches today? within

  42. Session 1: The Intention of Matthew Use in Life and Ministry Think Back Through the First Three Steps. Design an Application for Your Life. Think through Mathew’s intention in writing his Gospel, as studied in this session, and reflect on its value. How can it be used more fully in your life and ministry? What do you need to do to ensure you are using it correctly? Evaluate your own understanding and valuing of Matthew. List how to get to the point of using it effectively in your life and ministry.

  43. How can we take full advantage of Matthew’s value to us as churches today? How can I take full value of Matthew in my individual life?