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Water recycling Spares management

Water recycling Spares management

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Water recycling Spares management

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  1. Water recyclingSpares management Alessandro Golkar July 31, 2009

  2. Summary • Introduction • Water Recycling Methods • Distillation systems spare needs • Filtration systems spare needs • Backup Slides • Vapor Compression Distillation Alessandro Golkar

  3. Introduction • In this charts we will review the major methods for water recycling; • The spares needs for the different technologies are identified; • The future work will consist in completing the estimates of the spares amounts for the different technologies. Alessandro Golkar

  4. Water recycling methods • Distillation (phase change processes) • Vapor compression distillation (VCD) • Thermoelectric integrated membrane evaporation (TIMES) • Vapor phase catalytic ammonia removal (VAPCAR) • Other • Filtration • Reverse osmosis (RO) • Multifiltration • Other • Differences between distillation and filtration • Higher quality water (i.e. potable) is usually recycled using distillation, because it is a process conducted at higher temperatures (phase change) thus killing bacteria. Lower quality water (i.e. flush water) is recycled by filtration. Alessandro Golkar

  5. Distillation Systems Spares Need • Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) • H2O Pre-treatment expendable chemicals • H2O Post-treatment expendable chemicals • Components of Evaporator, Condenser, Condensate collector • Thermoelectric Integrated Membrane Evaporation Subsystem (TIMES) • H2O Pre-treatment expendable chemicals • H2O Post-treatment expendable chemicals • Thermoelectric Heat Pump • Hollow fiber membranes • Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal (VAPCAR) • No expendable chemicals • Hollow fiber membranes • Catalyst beds Alessandro Golkar

  6. VCD Data [14] (1/2) Alessandro Golkar

  7. VCD Data [14] (2/2) • [14] reports: “Accumulated life as of 3:30 p.m. EDT, 05/02/86, components still in operation”. • VCD is sized to process 18.1 kg/d of liquid waste to meet the needs of a three-person crew; • Recycle tank (the one in the table is the dry weight) sized for 90-day operation at 0.18 kg/p/d of solids to meet the needs of a three-person crew; • Packaging overhead is 12%. Alessandro Golkar

  8. Filtration Systems Spares Needs • Reverse Osmosis • Membranes. Alternatives: • Inside skinned hollow fiber membrane • Dual layer membrane • Multifiltration • Filters • Ion-exchange resin beds • Charcoal Alessandro Golkar

  9. References 1. Budininkas, P., Rasouli, F. and Wydeven, T. Development of a Water Recovery Subsystem Based on Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal (VPCAR) 1986 2. Dehner, G. F., Reysa, R. P. Thermoelectric Integration Membrane Evaporation Subsystem Water Recovery Technology Update 1985 3. Dehner, G. F., Winkler, E. H. and Reysa, R. P. Thermoelectric Integrated Membrane Evaporation Subsystem Operational Improvements 1984 4. Gorensek, M. B., Baer-Peckham, D. Space Station Water Recovery Trade Study - Phase Change Technology 1988 5. Herrmann, C. C. High-Recovery Low-Pressure Reverse Osmosis 1992 6. Hitt, A. J., III, Renfro, R. H., Schien, K. F. and Streams, E. Criteria Definition and Performance Testing of a Space Station Experiment Water Management System 1988 7. Ishida, H., Ohshima, M., Shimoda, T. and Shiraishi, A. Development of Low Pressure Membrane Distillation 1998 8. Noble, L. D. J., Schubert, F. H. and Graves, R. E. An Assessment of the Readiness of Vapor Compression Distillation for Spacecraft Wastewater Processing 1991 9. Ray, R. Membrane-Based Water and Energy-Recovery Systems for the Manned Space Station 1985 10. Ray, R. J., Babcock, W. C., Barss, R. P., Andrews, T. A. and LaChapelle, E. D. A Novel Reverse-Osmosis Wash Water Recycle System for Manned Space Stations 1984 11. Reysa, R. P., Price, D. F., Olcott, T. and Gaddis, J. L. Hyperfiltration Wash Water Recovery Subsystem - Design and Test Results 12. Schubert, F. H. Phase Change Water Recovery Techniques: Vapor Compressor Distillation and Thermoelectric/Membrane Concepts 1983 13. Winkler, E. H., Verostko, C. E. and Dehner, G. F. Urine Pretreatment for Waste Water Processing Systems 1983 14. Zdankiewicz, E. M., Chu, J. Phase Change Water Recovery for Space Station - Parametric Testing and Analysis 1986 Alessandro Golkar

  10. BACKUP SLIDES Alessandro Golkar

  11. Vapor Compression Distillation Example(http://www.aquatechnology.net/vaporcompressiondistillers.html) Step 1: In a vapor compression(VC) system, the distillation process begins in the boiling chamber, just as it does in virtually any other distiller. What separates this method from other distillation methods is what comes after the boiling chamber. Step 2: In a Vapor Compression VC6000, VC3000, VC1500 and VC800 system the boiling process begins with both heating elements turned on. As the water in the boiling chamber reaches near boiling temperatures, the compressor turns on, which engages the unique non-contacted liquid ring seal.When the boiling begins, the #2 heating element turns off and the #1 heating element cycles on and off maintaining the boiling at just the right temperature for maximum efficiency. The steam from the boiling water flows through a baffling system and then into the compressor. Step 3: In the compressor, the steam is pressurized, which raises the steam's temperature before it is routed through a special heat exchanger located inside the boiling chamber. The steam (under pressure) is at a higher temperature than the feed water inside the boiling chamber .Step 4: The pressurized steam gives off its heat to the tap water inside the boiling chamber, causing this water to boil, which creates more steam. In technical terms, the steam "gives up its latent heat of vaporization" to the water inside the boiling chamber. Step 5: While the pressurized steam is giving up its latent heat, the steam will condense. One of the heating elements will cycle on and off periodically as needed to provide any "make-up" heat that is required to keep the system operating at optimum temperature for maximum efficiency. Step 6: At this stage, the condensed steam is considered distilled water but is still very hot--only slightly cooler than boiling temperature. To get maximum efficiency from the VC systems, the hot distilled water preheats the incoming feed water that will be distilled. Alessandro Golkar

  12. VCD Additional Data [14] • [14] has additional mass breakdown info. Mass breakdown is not the same of operational life assessment. • [8] has VCD data as well (also later prototypes) Alessandro Golkar

  13. data • Times Mass and volume info in [12] p11, [4] p 9-10 aes, times and vcd • [6] data on filtration p2 Alessandro Golkar