AP Human Geography Week #29 Spring 2013
AP Human Geography 3/31/14http://mrmilewski.com • OBJECTIVE: Continue examination the changes in industrial production. APHugVI.A.2 • I. Journal#91pt.A -Watch the following: -Drug makers agree to curb antibiotic use for farm animals • II. Quiz#49 • III. Journal#91pt.B -notes on the changes in industrial production • Notice: 44 Days until the AP Test May 13th
This Week • Today – Journal#91 • Tomorrow – Practice Test • Wednesday – Journal#92 and Practice Map Test • Thursday – Journals #82-92 Due! • Friday – Map Test and Journal#93 • Monday – Ch#12 Test
Modern Production Outsourcing – moving individual steps in the production process (of a good or a service) to a supplier, who focuses their production and offers a cost savings. Offshore – Outsourced work that is located outside of the country.
Blessed with large coal deposits, metallic minerals such as iron ore and a vast labor force, India is growing by 8% year. Despite rapid industrialization it still remains agrarian and underdeveloped due to a poor infrastructure-over 50% of India’s crops rot in the field due to a lack of transportation South Asia-India
The Bihar Steel Mill in India produces high quality steel at a low price-the down side-low pay, few environmental restrictions=pollution. India’s service sector is also growing very rapidly. The Delhi Call Center at right is typical of the outsourcing done by many Western firms. India has millions of low paid blue-collar workers and millions of white collar, high tech. workers South Asia-India
How has Industrial Production Changed? Fordist – dominant mode of mass production during the twentieth century, production of consumer goods at a single site. Post-Fordist – current mode of production with a more flexible set of production practices in which goods are not mass produced. Production is accelerated and dispersed around the globe by multinational companies that shift production, outsourcing it around the world.
Time-Space Compression Through improvements in transportation and communications technologies, many places in the world are more connected than ever before.
Time-Space Compression • Just-in-time delivery rather than keeping a large inventory of components or products, companies keep just what they need for short-term production and new parts are shipped quickly when needed. Global division of labor corporations can draw from labor around the globe for different components of production.
New Influences on the Geography of Manufacturing • Transportation-intermodal connections where air, rail, truck, ship and barge connect-eases flow of goods-e.g. container shipping • Regional and global trade agreements-WTO, Benelux, European Union, NAFTA, MERCOSUR, SAFTA, CARICOM, ANDEAN AFTA, COMESA, etc. goal to ease flow of goods by eliminating trade tariffs or quotas • Energy-coal was replaced by natural gas & oil after WW II-transported by pipeline or tanker
Europe-despite North Sea Oil-still must import Mexico & Canada oil and natural gas U.S. uses 27% of oil & 37% of natural gas produced in the world. Dependent on imported oil Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Iraq, Russia large oil reserves
AP Human Geography 4/1/14http://mrmilewski.com • OBJECTIVE: Examine how facts change. APHugVI.A.2 • I. Administrative Stuff -attendance • II. AP Practice Test -75 multiple choice practice test • Homework: Complete reading Chapter#12 • Notice: 43 Days until the AP Test May 13th
This Week • Tomorrow – Practice Test • Wednesday – Journal#92 and Practice Map Test • Thursday – Journals #82-92 Due! • Friday – Map Test and Journal#93 • Monday – Ch#12 Map Test
AP Human Geography 4/2/14http://mrmilewski.com • OBJECTIVE: Continue examination the changes in industrial production. APHugVI.A.2 • I. Journal#92pt.A -Watch the following: -Is New Technology Chipping Away at Scope of the American Workforce? • II. Practice Map Test • III. Journal#92pt.B -notes on the changes in industrial production • IV. Journal#92pt.C -notes on the fall of planned economies in the UK • Notice: Journals#82-92 Due TOMORROW! • Notice: 42 Days until the AP Test May 13th
Pre-Post Test Re-take • 1/3 DISAPPOINTED in your last attempt to for the Practice AP Exam, so the following will occur: • It is now graded, out of 10 points • Raw score of 50+ = 15 points (no re-take) • Score of 40+ = 12 points (no re-take) • Score of 30+ = 10 points (no re-take) • Score of less than 30 = RE-TAKE -Retake Hours 1,2,3 SST April 8th -Retake SST Hours 4& 5 April 15th -THIS IS SERIOUS TO US teachers. You should score AT LEAST a 30 out of 75 on this…
Where are the Major Industrial Belts in the World Today and Why? Idle steel mill in Pennsylvania, part of the American Rust Belt
Deindustrialization – a process by which companies move industrial jobs to other regions with cheaper labor, leaving the newly deindustrialized region to switch to a service economy and work through a period of high unemployment. Abandoned street in Liverpool, England, where the population has decreased by one-third since deindustrialization
Newly Industrialized China – major industrial growth after 1950-Soviet planners helped from 1949 to 1964 Industrialization in the last half of 20th cent. was state-owned and planned: focus on: Northeast district-Dongbei Shanghai and Chang district Today, industrialization is spurred by companies that move production (not the whole company) to take advantage of Chinese labor and special economic zones (SEZs). Rapid growth on the Pacific Rim
As China’s economy continues to grow, old neighborhoods (right) are destroyed to make room for new buildings (below). Beijing, China
Left-Chinese industrial air conditioner plant Right-Singapore container port
What is the Service Economy, and Where are Services Concentrated? • Service economy is activity associated with provided services such as transportation, banking, retailing, education and office-based jobs. • New Influences on Location-less tied to energy sources, information technologies don’t need to be close to market-some personal services do need to be near market
Wal-Mart Requires producers of goods to locate offices in the Bentonville, Arkansas (Wal-Mart’s headquarters) area in order to negotiate deals with Wal-Mart. Proctor & Gamble put their office in nearby Fayetteville, Arkansas.
Nike-Headquartered in Beaverton, Oregon, Nike has never produced a shoe in Oregon. Beginning in the 1960s, Nike contracted with an Asian firm to produce its shoes. Skopje, Macedonia-The swoosh is ubiquitous, but where is the shoe produced? Nike has a global network of international manufacturing and sales.
Commanding Heights • The 20th century was the story about the rise an fall of planned economies. • The Commanding Heights is heavy industry: steel, coal, railroads. • You will see the fall of planned economies in the United Kingdom today. • Pay attention!!!
AP Human Geography 4/3/14http://mrmilewski.com • OBJECTIVE: Examine Industry & Services. APHugVI.A.2 • I. Administrative Stuff -Attendance -Journals#82-92 Due! • II. Quiz#50 • III. Film: Commanding Heights Day#3 -notes on film about industrialization • Notice: East and SE Asia Map Test TOMORROW • Notice: Chapter#12 Test Monday April 7th • Notice: 41 Days until the AP Test May 13th
AP Human Geography 4/4/14http://mrmilewski.com • OBJECTIVE: Complete examination of industrial production. APHugVI.A.2 • I. Journal#93 pt.A -Watch the following: -Book Traces History and Decline of Political Power as Power of 'No' Rises • II. East and SE Asia Map Test • III. Journal#93 pt.B -finish notes on high technology • Notice: Chapter#12 Test Monday April 7th • Notice: 40 Days until the AP Test May 13th
High-Technology Corridors • An area designated by local or state government to benefit from lower taxes and high-technology infrastructure with the goal of providing high-technology jobs to the local population. eg. Silicon breast Valley, California • Technopole – an area planned for high technology where agglomeration built on a synergy among technological companies occurs. eg. Route 128 corridor in Boston
Production of Televisions • Three key elements in television production: • Research and design • Manufacturing components • Assembly • Production of televisions has shifted across the world over time. • Right-Zenith Plant in Reynosa, Mexico
Electronic Computer Industry • Computers and computer parts manufacturing requires a highly-skilled labor force. • It is concentrated in the Northeast, South and West Coast in areas where universities and research facilities are located.
Motor Vehicle Parts Plants • American owned parts plants are clustered near the final assembly plants in the Rust Belt. • Foreign-owned plants tend to be located further south, where labor unions are weaker, wages, taxes and regulations are lower.
Change in Steel Production, 1973–2002 • Steel production has declined in the core and increased in the semiperiphery and periphery, especially in China, India, Brazil and South Korea
Steel Production, 1973 & 2002 • About 60% of global steel production took place in the Core in 2002 compared to 90% in 1973. • Growth of steel manufacturing in China has been especially dramatic.