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Vedic India

Vedic India

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Vedic India

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  1. Vedic India I. Stage One: Early Vedic Age, 1500-1000 BCE II. Stage Two: Later Vedic Age, 1000-500 BCE III. Stage Three: Hinduism & Early Buddhism, after 500 BCE IDs: Brahmans, karma, Mahavira, Siddhartha Gautama (the Buddha), d. 483 BCE

  2. Argument The Vedic religion provided a united identity for people in north India. It began as a tribal faith which emphasized sacrifice and evolved into an ethical religion - Hinduism – around 500 BCE.

  3. Indus River Civilization (3500-2000 BCE) India Pakistan Bangladesh Himalaya Mtns. Punjab

  4. 2000-1600 BCE: Crisis & collapse of Indus River Culture

  5. Vedic Nomads Invade, ca. 1500 BCE • Indo-European • Vedic peoples (Aryans) • Dravidians Vedic Age, 1500-500 BCE

  6. I. Stage 1: Early Vedic Age, 1500-1000 BCE

  7. A. HistoryVedic People brought • Horses • Chariots • Iron tools & weapons

  8. Settled Ganges River Valley • Pastoral  agricultural • Villages & no cities

  9. B. Caste (varna) in early Vedic Age brahman kshatriyas vaisyas Shudras

  10. C. Religion in early Vedic Age • Brahmans • Vedas • Sanskrit • Rig Veda, ca. 1500 BCE • Indra

  11. Emphasis on Sacrifice • Proper rituals • Sacrifices to gods • Cosmic order • Brahmans

  12. II. Stage 2: Late Vedic Age (1000-500 BCE) A. History Many small states Rajas Growth of towns

  13. B. Caste System Develops Jatis/sub-castes outcastes/ untouchables purity

  14. C. New religious ideas from late Vedic Age • karma • transmigration of souls (reincarnation) • dharma

  15. Philosophy & Written Texts Upanishads (700 BCE) Brahman atman

  16. III. Stage 3: Hinduism“Spiritual Age”: 6th -4th c. BCE A. Mahavira Jainism Asceticism Non-violence

  17. B. Dissatisfaction with Brahman leadership: Popular texts • Mahabharata (written down 200 BCE) • BhagavadGita • Krishna • Arjuna

  18. C. Early Buddhism Siddhartha Gautama (c. 563 – 483 BCE) the Buddha (the Enlightened One) Ganges Bodhi tree (bo)

  19. Four Truths 1.Life is full of suffering. 2.Suffering is caused by desires. 3.The only way to rise above suffering is to renounce desire. 4.One can only do this by following Noble Eightfold Path.

  20. Goals rid self of desire & the illusion of separate identity reach nirvana (contentment and extinction) By following Noble Eightfold Path

  21. The Buddha’s Footprints Limestone carving on stupa, India 1st c. BCE

  22. Sangha (Order) • monks • nuns

  23. The Three Jewels “I go for refuge to the Buddha. I go for refuge to the Doctrine (dharma). I go for refuge to the Order (sangha).”

  24. D. Religious Changes in South Asia (in Hinduism) Emergence of Popular Cults • Shiva • Vishnu • Krishna

  25. Development of Vedic Religion into Hinduism Stage One 1500 – 1000 BCE Early Vedic Religion Stage Two (1000 BCE – 600 BCE) Stage Three (600 BCE – 500 BCE) Hinduism & Buddhism History: Tribal organization, migration into north India, settlement, domination by Brahmins & kshatriya Text: Rig Veda Religion: Brahmins (priests), sacrifice, caste, obedience Human Needs: Identity (caste) Security History: Many small states governed by kshatriya; growth of towns Text: Upanishads Religion: elaboration of caste system, karma, reincarnation, dharma Human Needs: Identity Security Answers History: Dissatisfaction, towns, trade Texts: Mahabharata, Ramayana Religion: Mahavira & non-violence; Buddha & 4 Noble Truths Human Needs: Answers Personal Connection