Acutus Mens

# Acutus Mens

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## Acutus Mens

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1. AcutusMens Daily Challenges

2. AM #2 • What is the fear of the number 13 called? • What are the 6 metric prefixes? • What units do we use to measure volume ? • How many kiloliters are in 500 liters?

3. Answers • Answers: • TRISKADEKAPHOBIA • KILO; HECTO; DEKA; DECI; CENTI; MILLI • Milliliters (ml) for liquids and irregular solids (displacement factor) OR cm3 if a rectangular solid • .5 kl

4. AM #3 • Define mass. • What is the formula for Density? • What are the units for Density? • Define temperature.

5. Answers • The amount of matter in a object. • D = M/V • For a Regular solid – g/cm3; for a liquid or an irregular solid – g/ml • The amount of ENERGY in an object.

6. AM #4 • 6.2 km = ? M • The mass of an object is 25g and the volume is 5ml. What is the density? • Compare and Contrast accuracy and precision. • What is a controlled experiment?

7. Answers • 6200m • 5g/ml • Accuracy – exactness of your measure and skill (rounding to nearest .01) Precision – ability to replicate - following the directions exactly as they are written every time. • A controlled experiment is one where one variable remains the same (called the control). This is like a point of reference for the experiment. Other variables may be changed (independent variables).

8. AM # 5 • Compare a dependent and an independent variable. • Differentiate between a theory to a law. • Compare quantitative and qualitative data. • 6783.49 cl = ? dkl

9. Answers • An independent variable is what you change in an experiment. A dependent variable is the result of changing the independent variable. • A theory cannot be concretely proven. A law states a fact. • Quantitative – numerical data; Qualitative – details (color, condition, etc.) • 6.78349dkl

10. AM #6 • An object has a density of 1.8 g/ml. Will the object sink or float? • What tools do you need to calculate density? • Give an example scenario where accuracy is of the utmost importance.

11. ANSWERS • Sink (Density greater than 1) • For a regular solid: metric ruler/meter stick and a scale/triple-beam balance; For an irregular solid: graduated cylinder (or sometimes a beaker), water, and a scale/triple-beam balance. • Answers will vary

12. AM #7 • Differentiate between weight and mass. • What unit do we use to measure weight and force? • What tools are used for measuring mass (and weight)?

13. ANSWERS • Mass is the amount of matter in an object. Weight is the gravitational force that is exerted on an object. • Newton • Mass: triple-beam balance/scale and spring scale; Weight: spring scale/scale

14. AM # 8 • Compare mass and inertia • Define ductility. • What does it mean if a substance is malleable? • The temperature of an acid solution is 250C. A strip of magnesium is added and the temperature rises 20C each minute for the first 3 minutes. After another 5 minutes the temperature has risen 2 more degrees. What is the final temperature?

15. ANSWERS • Mass is a measure of inertia. The more mass an object has, the more inertia it has. • The ability to be pulled into wires. (Copper) • The substance can be hammered and rolled into sheets. (Aluminum) • 330C

16. AM #9 • How does a chemical change differ from a chemical property? • What are the signs of a chemical change? • Generally speaking, is a chemical change reversible? Why or Why not? • Which of the following is a chemical property? Malleability, Ductility, Conductivity, or Density

17. ANSWERS • Chemical changes occur when one or more substances are changed into entirely new substances with new properties. Chemical properties determines whether chemical change will occur. • Change in color or odor, production of heat, fizzing and foaming, sound or light being given off, etc. • A chemical change constitutes a change in composition. It is virtually impossible to revert an object to its original composition. • Conductivity – ability to conduct an electrical charge

18. AM # 10 • Compare the 3 states of matter in regard to placement of particles. • How is a plasma classified as a state of matter? • Compare Boyle’s Law to Charles’ Law. • What happens to a helium balloon when it is taken outside on a cold winter day? Explain why.

19. ANSWERS • Solid: particles tightly packed; liquid: particles loosely packed – enough to where they can slip past one another; gas: particles are widely dispersed • An ionized gas. It only exists on the earth in the form of lightning. Almost impossible to harness…Plasma makes up about 99% of the matter in the universe. • Boyle: constant temperature – volume increases as pressure decreases. Charles: constant pressure – volume increases and temperature increases • Balloon deflates – example of Charles Law (as temperature decreases, volume decreases)

20. AM #11 • Compare elements, mixtures, and compounds. • What are the three classifications of elements? • Give an example of an element, a mixture, and a compound. • Compare a solute to a solvent.

21. ANSWERS… • Element – as simplistic as a substance can be without losing its properties; Mixture – substances that are NOT chemically combined; Compound – substances that ARE chemically combined • Metal, Nonmetal, Metalloid • Element: Neon; Mixture: salad; Compound: Water • A solute is dissolved in a solvent.

22. AM #12 • What is concentration? • How can we change the solubility rate? • Give an example of a colloid and a suspension. • What is the universal solvent?

23. ANSWERS • The ratio of solute to solvent. • Can be manipulated by heat. • Colloid: jello, milk, mayonnaise; Suspension: Italian Salad Dressing, Homestyle Orange Juice • WATER!!!

24. AM #13 • Define an atom. • Compare an atom, element, molecule, and a compound. • What makes John Dalton special? • What Greek Philosopher came up with the idea for an atom?

25. ANSWERS • Smallest particle into which an element/substance can be cut. • Atom – smallest particle of an element; element – pure substance (on periodic table); molecule – any two chemically bonded ATOMS; compound – any two or more chemically bonded ELEMENTS • He was the first to develop an atomic theory. • Democritus

26. AM # 14 • Who’s theory about the atom was called “plum pudding?” • What is Rutherford credited for? • What unit do we use to measure atomic mass? • What charges do the subatomic particles hold? • Where can the subatomic particles be found inside the atom?

27. ANSWERS • J.J. Thomson • The positively charged nucleus • Atomic mass unit (amu’s) • Proton = +; Neutron = neutral; Electron = - • Protons and Neutrons – inside the nucleus; Electrons – in the electron clouds spinning around the nucleus

28. AM # 15 • What does the atomic number tell you? • How do you find the number of neutrons in an atom? • How many electrons will the 4 electron cloud hold? • What is an ion? • What forces are at work inside an atom?

29. ANSWERS • How many protons are in the nucleus. Most of the time it tells you the number of electrons as well (unless it is an ion). • Take the difference between the atomic number and the atomic mass (rounded to the nearest whole number). • 32 • An electrically charged atom. The number of protons and electrons are NOT equal. Can be positive or negative. • Magnetic and Gravitational

30. AM#16 • What does the term “periodic” mean? • Who was the first scientist to organize the Periodic Table of Elements? • Using your textbook: define “periodic law.” • Using your textbook: What are the only 2 elements that are liquids at room temperature? • What are the 6 metalloids?

31. ANSWERS… • Happening at regular intervals • Mendeleev • Repeating chemical and physical properties of elements change periodically (across periods) with the element’s atomic number • Bromine and Mercury • Boron (B), Silicon (Si), Germanium (Ge), Arsenic (As), Antimony (Sb), and Tellurium (Te)

32. AM#17 • What are the vertical columns called on the periodic table? • What are the horizontal rows called on the periodic table? • As you move across periods from left to right, what happens to elements? • What is Group 1 called? What are the common characteristics of this group? • What is Group 2 called? What are the common characteristics of this group?

33. ANSWERS… • Groups/Families • Periods • Elements become less metallic; change based on a repeating pattern (periodic law). • Alkali Metals; highly reactive; one valence electron; explodes in presence of water • Alkaline Earth Metals; reactive; 2 valence electrons

34. AM#18 • Where are the Lanthanides and Actinides located on the Periodic Table? • Name 2 elements from these 2 series. • What group is called the Halogens? • Why are the Noble Gases “noble?” • What is the purpose of a valence electron?

35. ANSWERS… • At the bottom • Answers Vary… • Group 17 • The have a full set of valence electrons and do not feel the need to bond to be complete. • They are the electrons that are responsible for bonding. Commonly called the “hook up” electrons…

36. AM#19 • What happens to chemical bonds during a chemical reaction? • What are the “magic numbers” in bonding? • Do the Noble Gases bond? • What kind of elements make up an ionic, covalent, and metallic bond? • Why would an ion carry a negative charge?

37. ANSWERS… • The break and the bond again • 2 and 8 • No – they have 8 valence electrons in their outermost shell • Ionic = metal/nonmetal; Covalent = nonmetal/nonmetal; Metallic = metal/metal • It has gained electrons during the bonding process • s

38. AM#20 • Why would an ion carry a positive charge? • Why are ionic compounds neutral? • Give an example of a molecule. • Why can you bend a metal spoon, but not a wooden spoon? • What is the result of a chemical reaction?

39. ANSWERS… • It lost electrons during the bonding process. Therefore the protons outnumber the electrons. • The positive charged metal neutralizes the negative charged nonmetal. (+2 + -2 = 0) • H2O or O2 • Metals bond loosely, therefore they can bend. Ionic and covalent bonds are more brittle than metallic bonds. • A chemical bond (or a product).

40. AM #21 • What is a precipitate? • What are 3 signs of a chemical reaction? • How many atoms are in the following equations? • H2O • C6H12O6 • 2Al2(SO4)3 • Label the parts of the following equation. • C + O2 CO2 • Balance the following equation. • ___H + ___ O2 ____ H2O

41. ANSWERS… • A solid particle that forms during a chemical reaction. • Gas formation, precipitate formation, color change, fizzing, etc… • 3,24,34 • Label the parts of the following equation. • C + O2 CO2 • Balance the following equation. • ___H + ___ O2 ____ H2O

42. AM #22 • Explain the Law of Conservation of Mass in relation to a chemical equation. • Give an example of each of the following: • Synthesis • Decomposition • Single-Displacement Reaction • Double-Displacement Reaction • What is an endothermic reaction? An exothermic reaction? • What is the Law of Conservation of Energy and how does it apply to chemical reactions?

43. ANSWERS… • What ever particles you start with, you also end with. (Balancing Equations) Matter is NOT created or destroyed! • Synthesis…Na + Cl = NaCl • Decomposition…NaCl = Na + Cl • Single-Displacement Reaction • Zn + AgCl Yields Ag + ZnCl • Double-Displacement Reaction • ZnF + AgCl Yields AgF + ZnCl • Endo = energy is brought in (on reactant side); Exo = energy is released (on product side) • What ever energy you start with, you finish with…energy is NOT created or destroyed!

44. AM #23 • What kind of energy is required to start a chemical reaction? • What are 5 ways we can manipulate a Chemical Reaction? • What is an indicator? • Describe an acid. • Describe a base. • How does the pH scale work?

45. ANSWERS… • Activation energy • Temperature, concentration, inhibitor, catalyst, surface area • Substance that changes color in the presence of an acid or base • Sour, toxic, corrosive • Bitter, slippery, conducts electrical current • 1-14 – lower numbers are acids; higher numbers are bases; 7 is neutral

46. AM#24 • What is the formula for speed? • Calculate the speed: 50meters and 10seconds • What is velocity? • Define acceleration. • What are the 2 types of acceleration? • What do we call continuous acceleration in a circle? • Define force. What unit do we use to measure force?

47. ANSWERS • Speed = Distance ÷ Time • 5m/s • Speed in a SPECIFIC direction (45m/s NW) • Any change in velocity (speed or direction) • Positive and Negative (Deceleration) • Centripetal Acceleration • A push or pull; the newton (N)

48. AM#25 • Describe net force. • What happens when forces are traveling in the same direction? In the opposite direction? • Describe a balanced force. What can balanced forces NOT do? • Describe an unbalanced force. What can unbalanced do? • How is friction involved in unbalanced forces? • What 2 factors affect friction?

49. ANSWERS • The combination of all forces acting on an object. • Same direction = add; Opposite direction = subtract • An object that has constant velocity or is completely still; cannot start motion! • An object in motion; can begin or change motion! • Friction is a factor to increase or decrease motion/unbalanced force. • Force applies; roughness of the surfaces