Kingdom PlantaeCommon Name: Plants Power point 1 For pages 19- 24
General Traits • Multicellular, eukaryotes • Makes its own food, glucose, by photosynthesis in chloroplasts • Cell walls made of cellulose
Major Phyla • Bryophytes (Mosses) • Ferns • Gymnosperms (cone-bearing plants) • Angiosperms (flowering plants)
Major Habitats Plants have evolved to live life on land, and will live anywhere there is enough sunlight to support photosynthesis.
Transport (move materials) • Plants move materials through their bodies (roots stem leaves and vice versa) through vascular tubes called xylem and phloem or simple diffusion. • Materials include water, glucose, and nutrients from the soil.
Excretion (waste removal) • Plants use holes in the bottom of their leaves, called stomata, to allow excess water to leave the plant. This process called transpiration allows more water to enter the plant at the root. • These holes are opened and closed by guard cells to prevent too much water loss. A thick waxy layer called the cuticle covers leaves and also prevents water loss.
Respiration (gas exchange) Stomata and guard cells also allow for the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen for photosynthesis and cellular respiration. Otherwise it is simple diffusion.
Nutrition (obtains food)/Niche Plants are producers (autotrophs) by making glucose through photosynthesis in the chloroplasts. Usually done in the leaf of a plant.
Basic Needs • Water for photosynthesis and movement of materials from soil through roots. • Carbon dioxide for photosyntheis from air through stomata. • Sunlight for photosyntheis through leaves. • Nitrates, phosphorous, and other minerals to support life from soil through roots.
Types of Plants Vascular-tubes to move materials Nonvascular-no tubes to move materials Bryophyta—no leaves, stems or roots Ferns--Seedless Gymnosperms—naked seeds, cone bearing Angiosperms—flowering with seeds in fruit Moncots—one seed leaf, vascular bundles are parallel in the leaf and scattered in the stem, and flower parts are in multiples of 3. Dicots—two seed leaves, vascular bundles are netlike in the leaf and in a ring in the stem, and flower parts are in multiples of 4 and 5.
Classifying Plants by leaf shape http://www.robinsonlibrary.com/science/botany/anatomy/leafparts.htm
Vascular Plant • Scientific Name: Thelypteriskunthii • Common Name: Southern Shield Fern • Where is it Found? Meadows, woodlands • http://www.gardensoyvey.com/ • themarvelousinnature.wordpress.com
Nonvascular • Scientific Name: Pohlianutans • Common Name: moss • Where is it Found? In any damp area in all climates . In very cold climates, moss is the main producer(summer only). Top ones are from Alaska and bottom is from Antartica.
Gymnosperm • Scientific name: Pinus palustris • Common name: Longleaf pine • Where is it Found? Southeastern US
Angiosperm • Scientific Name: Cornus sp. • Common name: Dogwood • Where is it Found? Southeastern US