Overview • Piaget’s theory of development • Intelligence: definitions • Cultural issues with intelligence tests • Howard Gardner’s 8 intelligences • Emotional Intelligence
Piaget believed that children’s minds were very different from adults Child’s mind develops in a series of stages Schemas are built and experiences are connected to them Assimilation Accommodation Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
Sensory-motor stage (age 0~2) • World is understood based on direct experience with senses and actions • Development of object permanence • How are infants studied?
Preoperational Stage (age 2~7) • World is understood also by words and images, and thoughts are intuitive • Some symbolic understanding occurs (DeLoache 1987) • Egocentrism and theory of mind • Don’t understand concept of conservation
Concrete Operational Stage (age 7~11) • Begin to grasp conservation • Understand mathematical transformations • Think to themselves in words to solve problems
Formal Operational Stage (age 12~) • Reasoning encompasses abstract thinking • Able to follow logical syllogisms and solve new problems based on rules
How good is Piaget’s theory? • Studies around the world support basic sequence • Stimulated a lot of interest and study in the milestones of cognition • Criticisms of ages of acquisition of abilities • Stages vs. Continuous Development debate
What is intelligence? • The ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations OR • Whatever the ‘intelligence’ test is measuring
A brief history of intelligence testing • Alfred Binet commissioned by French Government in 1904 to create an objective measure of child ability in school • Lewis Terman adapted this - became the Stanford-Binet • Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) developed by David Wechsler (also the WISC) • Separates verbal comprehension,perceptual organization, working memory, and processing speed
Cultural Issues with Intelligence Testing • Racial groups differ in their average scores on intelligence tests • High scoring people (and groups) are more likely to attain high levels of education and income • Issues with the tests?
Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences • Based on case studies, cross-cultural research, and differences in normal abilities • Seem to have a neural basis
Linguistic Logical-mathematical Musical Body-kinesthetic Spatial Interpersonal Intrapersonal Naturalist Gardner’s 8 Intelligences