Download
pursuit of power n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Pursuit of Power PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Pursuit of Power

Pursuit of Power

186 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Pursuit of Power

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Pursuit of Power Chapter 14

  2. Power of Kings: Absolute or Restrained

  3. What is the difference between an absolutist and a limited ruler?

  4. List the ways in which European rulers sought to make their power absolute. • 1) their control over their nation’s finances, religion, and nobility • 2) the size of the standing army • 3) the size of the government bureaucracy • 4) the size of their territory

  5. What justification rulers give for absolutism and why did many Europeans accept this argument? • Divine Right

  6. Timeline for French Absolutism • Henry IV • Louis XIII and Richelieu • 30 Years' War • Louis XIV and Mazarin • The Frondes • Louis XIV takes over in his own right • Revocation of the Edict of Nantes • Louis XV

  7. Timeline for 30 Years' War • Peace of Augsburg • The Holy Roman Emperor (who was Catholic) revoked religious freedom • Protestant Bohemian nobles revolted • Protestant resistance was crushed • The war spread to other parts of the Holy Roman Empire • The Protestant cause was rescued by GustavusAdolphus, King of Sweeden • France entered the war to help the Protestants • Peace of Westphalia

  8. List Cardinal Richelieu’s aims and explain how he hoped to achieve them: • Louis XIV reigned 70 years • Bourbon King Henry IV – strengthen royal power and reduced privileges of the nobility and increased government control of economy • Assassinated • Louis XIII (9) – his mother Marie de Medici rules • 1624 – Cardinal Richelieu became Louis’ advisor

  9. Henry IV Louis XIII

  10. Richelieu Mazarin

  11. Richelieu’s Aims • Get rid of Huguenots • French soldiers housed with Huguenots • Children taken away • Spies in churches • Arrests and fines • Some left, some endured, some fought • Weaken nobility • Take positions of authority • Replaced with intendents • Destroyed castles • Arrests and executions

  12. Explain the cause of the 30 year’s war and why France entered the war. Why do some say that the war was more political than religious in nature:

  13. Started by Richelieu 1618-48 • John Huss’ Bohemia • Protestant Bohemians revolt against Catholic Emperor • Spreads to all parts of the empire, Protestantism almost fails • Rescued by GustavusAdolphus, king of Sweden • Lead an army in Germany, killed in battle, but France entered war for the Protestants?

  14. Richelieu feared Hapsburg powers, Spain and HRE • Joined in 1635, making it a political war • Protestant-French victory

  15. GustavusAdolphus

  16. List the consequences of the Peace of Westphalia: • recognized the independence of the Protestant provinces of the Netherlands and the Swiss confederacy • Germany became more politically fragmented • France emerged as the strongest nation on the continent of Europe.

  17. What were the Frondes? What caused them? Did they Succeed? • Richelieu died 1642 • Louis XIII died 5 months later • Louis XIV (5) – government controlled by Jules Mazarin • Maintained absolutist policies • Imposed new taxes • Riots, civil wars, etc • Upheavals known as Frondes • King had to leave • Last attempt to limit king until French Revolution in 1789

  18. Louis XIV

  19. Describe Louis XIV’s rule of France and assess the effectiveness of his policies. • Mazarin dies, no one replaces him…king has power • 1661-1715 – The Age of Louis XIV • Jean-Baptist Colbert – minister of finance • Brought order to economy and tighter government control • Encouraged commercialism and self-sufficiency • Increased exports and building navy

  20. Louis wanted recognition from soldiers, not giving it to colonel • Put lieutenants over each regiment • Standard uniforms • Well-paid, well-trained, and loyal

  21. Jean-Baptiste Colbert

  22. Revocation of the Edict of Nantes • Revoked Edict of Nantes 1685 – • Huguenots lost their religious freedoms • Up to ½ million left France • Strengthens other nations • 100 years till revolution

  23. Life at Versailles • Louis XIV = Sun King, everyone revolves around him • Loved luxury and attention • Palace of Versailles • ½ mile long, hundreds of rooms, symmetrical, etc • Complete pomp!

  24. Foreign Policy • Wanted to expand borders • The Rhine, Alps, Pyrenees • France close to bankruptcy • Louis told his heir not to love war • Died 1715, ruled longer than any other European king • Outlived son and grandson • Great Grandson Louis XV (5) – would enjoy war and bankrupt nation

  25. Louis XV

  26. Absolutism Spreads in Europe • 1.) Brandenburg-Prussia • 2.) Austria • 3.) Russia

  27. Brandenburg-Prussia • Germany in nearly 100 small states • Brandenburg-Prussia strongest • Strong electors • Military • Land • Efficient Bureaucracy • Cooperation of Junkers

  28. Fredrick William – “The Great Elector” • Created unified state • 30,000 men in army • High taxes 2x France! • Militarism helped created German national state • Fredrick I (1688-1713) – • Growing army • More concerned with arts • Wanted to be like Louis XIV • Built palace and beautified Berlin • Increased prestige of Prussia • Became “King of Prussia”

  29. Frederick I Fredrick William

  30. Fredrick William I (1713-1740) – • Established absolutism • Strict and violent • Obedience from all citizens • Focused on army with 83,000 men! • Fredrick II (1740-1786) – • Interested in arts, not war • “Fredrick the Great” as a military hero • Tripled size of German state • Built economy with silk and grain • Political and social reforms • Can’t torture prisoners, and religious freedom to Catholics and Jews

  31. Frederick II Frederick William I

  32. Prussia’s Rival – Hohenzollern (HO uhn ZAHL urn) of Austria • Prussia wins out, they become one nation in 19th century

  33. Absolutism in Austria • Held title “Holy Roman Empire” • Obstacles that hindered Austria from becoming a state • 1.) Roman Catholic Church and the nobility held great power and opposed any limitation up on their traditional rights. • 2.) Didn’t want to upset nobility because they needed protection from greedy neighbors • 3.) Too many different nationalities

  34. Joseph II (1765-1790)- • Co ruled with mother Maria Theresa. • She was a careful ruler • When she is gone, he goes against nobility and Roman Catholic Church • Charged them more taxes, but less for peasants • Dissolved Monasteries, altered organization • Religious freedom to non Catholics • This would revert back after his death • Central government was stronger for weakening local authority

  35. Joseph II

  36. Absolutism in Russia • Get out from control of Mongols • Ivan IV (1533-84) – Ivan the Terrible • Expanded territory • Built St. Basil’s Cathedral • Murdered nobility, including son • Taxed people, treated like slaves • Called himself Czar

  37. After Ivan’s death, upheavals • Romanov government in 1613 till 1917

  38. Peter I (1682-1725) – Peter the Great • Economy weak, government disorganized • 1697 – travels to Western Europe to learn ways, brought 700 W. Europeans • Encourage production of Russian goods, papers, textiles • Building navy and new capital in St. Petersburg • Made people dress like Westerners • 1699, adapted Western Calendar • Wanted to expand territories and get warm-water ports • Great Northern War (1700-1721) – beat Sweden • Establishes land and ports • Had control of Russian Orthodox Church • Created Holy Synod, like a board, which Peter controlled

  39. Catherine II (1762-92) – “The Great” • Hardworking, but immoral • Husband arrested and murdered • Nobles could keep positions, but had to serve state • Hard treatment of peasants • Tyranny of Czars until 20th century • “Enlightened Reformer” • Believed in education • Government censorship • Church property to the government • expanding

  40. Absolutism in England Defeated • Tudors worked with advisors • Sensitive to public opinion • Tensions rise with Elizabeth • Chooses James I to be successor

  41. James I (1603-25) • 1603 – Didn’t listed to Puritans…but did make new translation • 1611 – Authorized Version, King James Version • Everyone had to honor Anglican Church • Separatists/Pilgrims come to Americas • Scandalous life • How much authority? • Haughty towards House….this pulls Houses against James