管理的外部环境 • 外部环境 • 一般环境 • 经济环境 • 政治和法律环境 • 社会文化环境 • 科技环境 • 全球化环境 • 具体环境 • 顾客 • 供应商 • 竞争者 • 当地政府 • 内部环境 • 组织运行条件 • 组织文化 • 表层：厂容、厂貌、厂歌、厂旗、产品形象 • 中层：规章制度、组织结构 • 深层：沉淀于组织及职工心里的意识形态、道德规范、价值标准和行为准则 • 稳定而简单的环境 • 动荡而简单的环境 • 稳定而复杂的环境 • 动荡而复杂的环境
只有当企业不滥用我们的经济秩序所赋予它的自由，既只有当私有企业与公众利益能始终协调发展时，我们才有机会长期确保我们经济秩序的合法性和公认性。只有当企业不滥用我们的经济秩序所赋予它的自由，既只有当私有企业与公众利益能始终协调发展时，我们才有机会长期确保我们经济秩序的合法性和公认性。 ——Horst Steinmann • 正义是社会制度的首要价值，正像真理是思想的首要价值一样。一种理论，无论它多么精致和简洁，只要它不真实，就必须加以拒绝或修正；同样，某些法律制度，不管它们如何有效率和有条理，只要它们不正义，就必须加以改造或废除。 ——John Rawls
社会责任的两种相反的观点 • 古典观：管理的责任就是按股东（stockholder）的利益来来经营业务——财务收益率。 • 社会经济观：管理的责任是按照利益相关者（stakeholder）的利益来经营业务——最低生活保障、就业、环境、税收、平等。 小 大 阶段4 更广阔的社会 阶段1 所有者与管理层 阶段2 雇员 阶段3 具体环境中的各种成分
What is social responsibility? • The classic view: The view that management’s only social responsibility is to maximize profits. Milton Friedman. • The socioeconomic view: the view that management’s social responsibility goes beyond making profits to include protecting and improving society’s welfare. Corporations are not independent entities responsible only to stockholder, but to the larger society that endorses their creation through various laws and regulations and supports them by purchasing their products and services. Business organizations are not merely economic institutions. They are becoming more and more involved in social, political, and legal issues. • Social responsibility: a business firm’s obligation, beyond that required by law and economics, to pursue long-term goals that are good for society.
Our Credo We believe our first responsibility is to the doctors, nurses and patients,to mothers and fathers and all others who use our products and services.In meeting their needs everything we do must be of high quality.We must constantly strive to reduce our costsin order to maintain reasonable prices.Customers' orders must be serviced promptly and accurately.Our suppliers and distributors must have an opportunityto make a fair profit. http://www.jnj.com/our_company/our_credo/index.htm
We are responsible to our employees,the men and women who work with us throughout the world.Everyone must be considered as an individual.We must respect their dignity and recognize their merit.They must have a sense of security in their jobs.Compensation must be fair and adequate,and working conditions clean, orderly and safe.We must be mindful of ways to help our employees fulfilltheir family responsibilities.Employees must feel free to make suggestions and complaints.There must be equal opportunity for employment, developmentand advancement for those qualified.We must provide competent management,and their actions must be just and ethical. .
We are responsible to the communities in which we live and workand to the world community as well.We must be good citizens – support good works and charitiesand bear our fair share of taxes.We must encourage civic improvements and better health and education.We must maintain in good orderthe property we are privileged to use,protecting the environment and natural resources. Our final responsibility is to our stockholders.Business must make a sound profit.We must experiment with new ideas.Research must be carried on, innovative programs developedand mistakes paid for.New equipment must be purchased, new facilities providedand new products launched.Reserves must be created to provide for adverse times.When we operate according to these principles,the stockholders should realize a fair return
责任同心圆 新出现的还不明确的责任，企业必须保证越来越多地参与到改善社会环境的活动中来。 在执行基本职能时对社会价值观和优先权的变化采取负责任的态度，如环境保护、雇员关系、公平、信息透明 基本职责，如利润、产品、质量、经济增长