LA84 FoundationCoaching EducationBasic/Intermediate ClinicJump Training for All Track and Field Events Cameron T. Gary Mater Dei Catholic H.S. – Chula Vista, CA USATF Level 2 - Jumps
Why Do Jump Training? After all, my athletes are not jumpers… • The ability to jump: • Purest example of power expression • Especially in relation to body size • Exhibits dynamic body control • Directly transfers into all T&F events • Sprint Starts • Hurdle Clearances • Striding across the throwing ring • Most effective contributor to stride length • At any distance • Explosive capability is critical in ALL sports!
Central theme… • DELIVER FORCE INTO THE GROUND • Increased force into the ground = increased energy return to the body • DON’T over emphasize high-knees • High knee action is a reaction to ground force • Overemphasis on high knees results in “pulling” • Negates ground force application • Research has shown that faster running speeds are primarily due to: • Increased stride length due to ground force reaction • Faster application of high ground forces
Basic Concepts • Distinction between Strength and Power • Strength = max force applied against resistance • Irrespective of time element • Maximum poundage is lifted slowly • Power = applied strength vs. time • By definition uses sub-maximal resistance • Power IS a function of strength • The focus is speed of application • 200 lbs of force applied in 2 seconds; vs. • 300 lbs of force applied in 4 seconds • 200/2 = 100 lbs of force per second • 300/4 = 75 lbs of force per second
Basic Jumping • How do we jump? • “Triple extension” of hip, knee and ankle joints • Fast & Coordinated • Until foot release • All three must happen in order to “jump” • “Summation of Forces” • Non-extension of any one joint makes the jump inefficient • Can extrapolate this to upper body movements • VERY basic movement • Not “functional”, per se
Concentric Jumping • Main Characteristics • Pushingonly • Strength-oriented • Overcome inertia - move from a stationary position • Body at rest tends to stay at rest… • Sprint starts • Beginning of approach runs • We train this attribute through: • Bodyweight Exercises (e.g., Lunges) • Conventional weight lifting • Squats, dead lifts, etc. • Jumping up onto a surface • Running up stairs
Eccentric & Isometric Strength • Eccentric Contraction • Muscle lengthens under tension • Such as lowering the weight on a Bench Press • Stronger than Concentric • One can lower more weight than they can lift • Isometric (“isolate” + “measure”) • Muscle contraction w/o movement of joint • Very brief but very important • These attributes are trained by: • Lowering and/or holding weight • “Farmer’s” Carry, etc. • Running/ Horizontal Jumping & stopping (“Catching”) • Jumping (vertically) down (“Sticking”) • Running down stairs
Counter-Movement Jumping • Rapidweight drop • Temporarily “increase” weight • W/O increasing mass • Descent is briefly stopped & quickly reversed • Isometric strength must be great • Arm motions increase force into the ground • Applied downward then upward • Body “lightens” as a result • Balances the body (e.g. Alternate arm running)) • Train counter-movements through: • Hang Cleans, Hang Snatches, Push Jerks, etc.
“Plyometric” Jumping • Name is derived from Greek roots • plethyein, meaning “to increase” • “Plio” = more • “Metric” = measure • Noted track coach Fred Wilt • Credited with being the first American to use this term (circa 1975)
Plyometric History • These methods were used in Soviet bloc countries for several years prior to the 1970s • Notable Names: • Yuri Verkhoshansky– noted Soviet coach and pioneer in the field • ValeriBorzov– Olympic gold medalist sprinter • Used extensive jump training • Probably the one who made Americans realize that things had changed…re: “natural” sprinters
The Goal of Plyometrics • A dynamicform of strengthtraining • Designed to impart a load on the muscles • Intended to “Pre-Recruit” the muscles: • Synergistic • Not possible w/ isolation movements • Maximal strength • As quickly as possible • Best done with • Movements consistent with the athletic skill or event • While athlete is NOT in a fatigued state
Plyometric “Springy” Effect • Stretch-Shortening “Myotatic” Reflex • RAPID Absorption > Stabilizing > Explosion • Dynamic power (strength vs. time) • Functional muscular tension (within reason) • Example - Maximum speed sprinting • Shallow knee angles – Fast ground contact • “Front-Side” Mechanics • Multiple “jumps” down the track • One cannot “push” fast enough • “Horizontal” jumping/running really isn’t horizontal • Transitional vertical impulse • Sinusoidal movement of pelvic girdle
Plyometric Analogy • Stretching a rubber band, and then releasing it • Bouncing a rubber ball off a hard surface • The harder the ball, the higher the bounce • Superball vs. Tennis Ball • There must be some “give” • The more energy applied downward, the more resulting bounce upward • Dropped from higher • Thrown down as opposed to dropped
Merelyjumpingfrom one spot to another is NOT Plyometric • Must have instantaneous change in direction • Must have a reflexive shortening of the muscle • The rate of stretch is highly tied to the effectiveness • Better to stretch the muscle faster than to stretch the muscle further • When the degree of stretch is so great that the movement slows/compromises, it is better to: • Decrease the degree of stretch until the rate improves • Change the movement to place the athlete into a better position to achieve a faster stretch rate (depth, etc.) • Example: Box jumping • Stop the exercise and resume when the athlete is rested
Equipment/Surface/Safety Concerns • Initially use Bodyweight for resistance • Added height/weight is for advanced athletes • Power development • High intensity training • Land with a full foot placement • Toward the middle of the foot • Not heavily on the toes or the heels • Pre-Stretch the Achilles Tendon • Dorsi-Flex the foot • Deliver a Blow! • Athlete should strike the ground – not push
Equipment/Surface/Safety Concerns(Cont.) • The landing surface should: • Be forgiving, but not too spongy • Allow good traction – especially w/ horizontal movements • If using boxes: • Be sturdy w/ non-slip tops and bases • Should not be too high • 99% of work can be done w/ boxes under 18 inches • Knee angles should be the same at take-off and landing • Proper footwear is critical! • Sturdy, shock-absorbent soles • NEVER barefoot on hard surfaces
Applied Jumping Exercises • Hopping • Single or Double leg • Skipping • “A” series, “B” series, etc. • Max-Speed Sprinting • Rebound Jumping • Up or down • Horizontal Bounding • “Bouncing” upper body movements • “Dynamic” push-ups • Medicine Ball Catch and Throw, etc. • Most importantly – Stress Power Into the Ground!
Division of Exercises • Do not confuse: • Intensity level with the ability to cause fatigue • One can become “tired” from skipping rope • One can become “tired” from jogging • One can become “tired” from calisthenics • Perception of fatigue is not always apparent after a series of maximal-effort jumps • Speed/Powertraining is neural as well as physiological • The athlete should be sufficiently rested (between workouts, sets, reps) to allow for maximal efforts • Dynamics are the same as quality sprinting
Example – Division by Intensity Level • Low (general warm-ups, recovery work, etc.) • Rope skipping • Recreational game playing (hopscotch, etc.) • Jogging • Medium (active warm-ups, technique, conditioning, etc.) • Running (sub-maximal) • Bounding drills (sub-maximal) • Repetitive sub-maximal sport-specific jumps • Repetitive sub-maximal sport direction changes • High (power development, competition rehearsal, etc.) • Maximal effort competition jumping • Maximal effort sprinting • Maximal sport-specific direction changes • Depth Jumping
Balance the Work • Keep your jumping exercises at an intensity consistent with the focus of the session • Warm-ups and technical (learning) movements are done sub-maximally • Strength/Speed Development movements are done maximally • If the movements fall below a certain level re: time, distance, reps vs. time, etc. • Give more rest between sets • Stop the exercise and go to something else
Simple to Complex • Focus on technical proficiency over volume • More is not necessarily better (“Better” is better) • It serves no purpose to do more of an improper movement • Anything worth doing is worth doing correctly • Improper technique exposes athletes to injury • Progress from Bilateral to Unilateral • For Young Athletes • Keep the volume low and the intensity high • 20 – 150 Ground Contacts Per Session • Keep the reps low per set • Example - horizontal movements • Speed/Power = 40 yards or less per repetition • Work Capacity = 50 – 100 yards per repetition • Monitor your athlete’s rest intervals to achieve the session goals
Recommended Order of Training • Technique • Speed • Power/Strength • Endurance/Work Capacity • This is where many mistakes are made • Endurance training is NOT speed training! • Separate your endurance training from your Jump or Speed training • It is acceptable to perform tempo-endurance training the day after Plyometric training. • Focus on QUALITY over quantity
A note on endurance… • Endurance is the ability to resist fatigue • In jumping, “endurance” equates to work capacity • Ability to apply maximal efforts repeatedly • Increasing one’s strength • Increases one’s power potential • 200 lb max squatter can more quickly lift a 100 lb load than a 150 lb squatter • Must account for relative body weight • Must account for the needs relative to the event • Distance runner vs. shot putter
Recovery • Between Sets • Maximal Effort = Maximal Recovery • Sub-maximal effort with sub-maximal recovery • Work Capacity/Endurance • Between Sessions • Jump training can be done about 2 – 3x a week, but… • Maximal efforts about 1 – 2x a week • Followed by a tempo session or active rest • Athletes generally need about 48-72 hours to recover from intense jumping work • Low intensity jumping can be done daily • Remember – COMPETITIONS are high intensity training exercises.
Video Demonstrations • Stair Drills • Double Step Hop • Double Step Up and Back • Field Drill Demos • Basic Lunge • Split Lunge Jump • Standard Skip • Step Bounding
Cameron T. Gary www.ctgdevelopment.net 619-895-4699 email@example.com