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Food Security in India: Taking a Leaf out of the Dragon’s Rice Fields

Food Security in India: Taking a Leaf out of the Dragon’s Rice Fields

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Food Security in India: Taking a Leaf out of the Dragon’s Rice Fields

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  1. Food Security in India: Taking a Leaf out of the Dragon’s Rice Fields Ashok Gulati & Ganga Shreedhar International Food Policy Research Institute, New Delhi Office Presentation to: General Council of National Food Security Mission Chaired by the Hon. Minister of Agriculture Krishi Bhawan, New Delhi 23 June 2010

  2. Food Security Challenges in the land of the Dragon & the Elephant

  3. Paddy Production & Area Performance: China, India Pdn=mt, Area=mha, Yield= t/ha Source: For India: MoA, 2010 (Agricultural Statistics at a Glance 2009. For China: National Bureau of Statistics, 2010 (China Statistical Yearbook, 2009)

  4. Wheat Production & Area Performance: China, India Pdn=mt, Area=mha, Yield= t/ha Source: For India: MoA, 2010 (Agricultural Statistics at a Glance 2009. For China: National Bureau of Statistics, 2010 (China Statistical Yearbook, 2009)

  5. Maize/Corn Production & Area Performance:China, India Pdn=mt, Area=mha, Yield= t/ha Source: For India: MoA, 2010 (Agricultural Statistics at a Glance 2009. For China: National Bureau of Statistics, 2010 (China Statistical Yearbook, 2009)

  6. Case of China’s Hybrid Rice (HR) History of Hybrid Rice Technology Development in China Source: Li, Xin & Yuan, 2009

  7. Taking the Revolution from Lab to Farm Spread of HR Cultivation Hunan, 75% Jiangxi, 73% Sichuan, 91% Source: Li, Xin & Yuan, 2009; Note: % refers to share of hybrid rice area in total rice acreage

  8. Impact of Hybrid Rice Varieties on Yields Paddy Yields in China & India & Share of Hybrid rice in China’s rice area Yield Jumps due to HR? Source: FAOSTAT & Li, Xin & Yuan (2009)

  9. How did China Succeed?? • Step 1. Political Will & Commitment… • Research Investment (8 m. yuan in 1975- 10 m. yuan each in 1998 & 2003, 20 m. yuan in 2006) • Step 2: A Visionary with Mission: Father of Hybrid Rice in China • Longping Yuan led research in 14 provinces in 1970s • Rice breeders: >1,000 parental lines & >300 large-scale commercialized hybrids by 1990s • Pioneering Super Hybrid Rice- Yields > 10 t/ha Source: Li, Xin & Yuan, 2009

  10. Contd.. • Step 3. Institutional Innovation & Dynamism • Dynamic & widespread multi-tiered research institutes, seed production & extension agencies • Demonstrations & training • Reward & recognition mechanism • Scaling up seed production & lowering seed costs, minimum quality testing for seeds from 1985 onwards Source: Li, Xin & Yuan, 2009

  11. Commercial hybrid rice yield and hybrid rice seed yield in China (1976-2008) Source: Li, Xin & Yuan, 2009

  12. Some impacts of Hybrid Rice on China’s Food Security • Accumulated yield increase from HR is 608 mt (1976-2008) • Yield increase has helped China feed an extra 60 million people annually • 5 mha of rice land saved from 1978 to 2008, while production up by 44.1%  frees land for crop diversification into High Value Agriculture Source: Li, Xin & Yuan, 2009

  13. Hybrid Rice in India • HR research intensified from 1989 - network of 21 research centers under Directorate of Rice Research (DRR) • 2006- 29 varieties by public sector + 6 by private sector; over 1 mha • But adoption poor- Goal of DRR Vision 2025= expand HR area to 10 mha by 2025 • Grain quality- Consumer preferences, millers acceptance • Questions of relative yield & profitability gain over HYV paddy & seed production • Incentives for HR research & adoption • Coordination between research & implementation mechanisms/sectors + private sector Source: DRR, 2006

  14. Spread of Hybrid Rice in India- limited success? Hybrid Rice Acreage as a % of total Rice area in India Although >70% of area is currently planted to modern rice varieties (DRR, 2006), total area under HR is only 2-3% Source: 1997=Virmani 1998; 2005-06=Rao 2009, 2001-03= Directorate of Rice Research

  15. Some Hybrid Rice Initiatives under NFSM • 2011/12 target: 3 mha area, with requirement of 0.45 million quintal seed • Assistance for: • Seed prodn: Rs 1,000/- per quintal of certified hybrid seeds produced by public/private companies • Seed distribution: 50% of cost per quintal (limited to Rs.2000/q) • Seed Minikit Program Achievement Rate (%) against Target under NFSM Hybrid Rice Initiatives Source: NFSM website

  16. How does India take advantage of HR technology developments for Food & Nutritional Security? • Lessons from China’s experience • Political Commitment matched by resources & action • A visionary leader who coordinated HR research & its uptake by farmers • Institutional dynamism & innovations especially in the research & seed sector

  17. Some Issues • Taste & quality can be improved with research- China has done it • Bt Rice: Move from Fiber to Food • In China (2008) a new GM program at US$ 3.8 billion for 2009-2020; Bt Rice approved from Nov 2009 (Huang, 2010) • Bio-fortification of HR (Harvest plus, Golden Rice) & combining production & nutrition/health policy • Distribution of HR via PDS, ICDS & MDMS

  18. Creating more space for the Private sector in NFSM… • Seed production, multiplication & distribution • already over 25 companies in HR research • Extension activities How? • Identify high potential districts where pvt sector can focus – esp. in east • Treat public & private sectors alike- scope for partnerships • Conditional rewards system based on performance

  19. What else should the Elephant learn from the Dragon to ensure Food Security of the masses?Understanding the Reforms Process Firing Up from the Bottom Trickling Down from the Top

  20. Some suggestions • Set up a working group with representatives from; • Public Sector research & policy director of NFSM, ICAR, DRR etc. • Private sector HR seed research companies • External experts • Visit China to interact with key players • IFPRI as facilitator

  21. Thank You