Ardis Ann Moe, M.D. UCLA CARE Clinic/NEVHC HIV Clinic Van Nuys. 21 May 2014 firstname.lastname@example.org HIV medications: Side effects and benefits of ARV Treatment
Objectives • To describe the major side effects of HIV treatment • To know useful lab tests for HIV side effect monitoring • To review case studies of how to choose initial HIV regimen, and what regimen to switch to in the event of side effects • Benefits of treatment
Quick-and-dirty: Plans A,B,C and D • Plan A: “A pill A day for type A personalities” Atripla, complera, stribild • Low barrier to resistance • NOT for patients who are unreliable about medications or appointments
Plan B: “Boosted protease inhibitor for batty buddies on the brink” • Most useful when you have desperately ill patients with OI or AIDS cancers OR mentally ill patients OR patients with other adherence risks • Reyataz/norvir/truvada • Lexiva/norvir/truvada • Prezista/norvir/truvada • High barriers to resistance.
Plan C: “Curses, I forgot the Contraception” • Kaletra and Combivir • First choice for pregnant women with HIV
Plan D: for Drug-drug interactions OR DARN I stuck myself • Isentress +truvada • Has fewest drug interactions • Preferred drug for needlestick injuries
Nucleoside Analogs • As a class they are associated with lactic acidosis, fatty liver disease • Pancreatitis—rare in most of the common nucleoside analogs, common in didanosine (Videx) • Most side effects linked to some form of mitochondrial poisoning; often organ specific.
Tenofovir/emtricitabine: truvada • Most common nucleoside/tide backbone for most HIV cocktails • Tenofovir: nucleotide analog: • Causes Fanconi’s syndrome and kidney damage • May lead to irreversible kidney failure if not discontinued in time. • May cause bone thinning. • Also treats hepatitis B effectively • May also cause GI upset
Emtricitabine • Rash—most likely to case rash of all the nucleosides • Also treats hepatitis B
Abacavir/lamivudine: Epzicom • Abacavir: associated with allergic reaction; flu-like illness with high fevers, diarrhea, cough, rash that can progress to anaphylaxis. Occasional headaches • Lamivudine. Probably can be put in the drinking water. • Sometimes patients tolerate the separate ingredients better than the combo drug
Zidovudine/lamivudine: Combivir • Zidovudine: Anemia, leucopenia, fatigue, headache, nausea. Myositis “AZT Butt” • Approved in 1987; first HIV medication • Also causes facial wasting • Twice-daily drug
Less commonly used nucleosides • Didanosine: Videx • High risk of pancreatitis, especially when combined with stavudine (zerit),peripheral neuropathy, lactic acidosis. • Single most dangerous drug in the whole HIV armamentarium
Stavudine (Zerit) • Peripheral neuropathy, facial wasting, lactic acidosis, pancreatitis. • Used as a “bridge” drug when more commonly used nucleosides are not able to be taken. • Side effects start after 5 months or more of use.
Protease inhibitors • 1st generation PI’s approved 1996; 2nd generation 2003 • As a class they all cause insulin resistance and risk of diabetes. • Diabetes may only be partially reversible • They all cause diarrhea, nausea and GI upset. • They all have significant drug interactions: cytochrome p450 inhibitors
Protease inhibitors have best data for patient survival after diagnosis of AIDS related cancers or opportunistic infections
1st generation protease inhibitors: • Lopinavir/ritonavir: Kaletra (BID) • Saquinavir: Invirase (BID) • Indinavir: Crixivan (BID) • Nelfinavir: Viracept (TID)
Except for kaletra, most 1st generation PI’s not used. • All 1st generation PI’s have elevated cholesterol, triglycerides, and fat accumulation problems.
Lipodystrophy is one of patient’s major concerns; some patients would rather die of HIV complications than have body-shape changes. • Similar issue to women with breast cancer and mastectomy • For 1st gen PI’s, risk 75% after 2 years of treatment
Second generation protease inhibitors • Atazanavir: Reyataz • Fos-Amprenavir: Lexiva • Darunavir: Prezista • Much less likely to cause lipodystrophy or cause elevated lipids (<5%) • Overall much better tolerated than 1st gen PI’s.
Atazanavir: • Can also cause unconjugated bilirubin elevation and scleral icterus (yellow eyes). Usual bilirubin levels 2-3.0 • Need to change meds when yellow eyes evident or bilirubin levels >3.5 • Has drug interaction with heartburn meds; Needs to be taken 12 hours away from zantac or other heartburn meds. • Best GI tolerance of all PI’s.
Fosamprenavir: • Can be taken with heartburn meds • Some risk of rash
Darunavir: • Has sulfa components;some risk of rash, esp in sulfa allergic patients (not a contraindication) • Has worst GI tolerance of second generation PI’s • Can be used for salvage treatment, but if patient is resistant to this PI, cannot salvage with any other PI
Non nucleoside analogs • As a class they all cause rash and have significant drug interactions (cytochrome p450)
Efavirenz: Sustiva • Best known of all the nucleoside analogs • Causes severe depression, panic attacks, insomnia (interfere with REM sleep), vivid dreams. • May also increase cholesterol • Neural tube defects in newborns • Used with truvada to make Atripla. • Has to be taken on an empty stomach at bedtime
Neviripine: Viramune • Most likely to cause Stevens-Johnson syndrome (potentially fatal rash)
Etravirine: Intelence • Twice daily dosing • Vivid dreams • Gritty taste; dissolves in mouth
Rilpivirine: Edurant. Used with truvada to make Complera • “Atripla Junior” can cause some depression and vivid dreams; usually less than efavirenz • Has to be taken with food. • Cannot be taken on the same day as heartburn meds
Delavirine: Rescriptor • Rarely used • Twice daily • Rash, birth defects
Integrase inhibitors • Raltegravir: Isentress • Dolutegravir: Tivicay • Elvitegravir (used with cobisistat in stribild) • As a class, they all cause diarrhea and occasional vivid dreams.
Raltegravir: • Twice daily drug; can be given safely with most cytochrome p450 active meds • Needs to be taken 2 hours away from PPI’s
Stribild: truvada + elvitegravir +cobisistat • Boosting agent: cobisistat: cytochrome p450 active agent. • Also needs to be taken 2 hours away from heartburn meds • Has all the side effects of truvada as well.
Dolutegravir: • Common: headache and insomnia. • Can worsen liver function when patient has hep C or hep B
Entry inhibitors • Enfuviritide. • Twice daily injectable drug. • GP41 inhibitor “condom for HIV virus” • Painful lumps on skin from local reaction to medication • No drug interactions. • $2,000 for this medication alone • Generally used for deep salvage treatment of HIV
Maraviroc: Selzentry • Twice daily drug • Risk of orthostatic hypotension • Risk of rash (small) Only effective in CCKR5 trophic HIV virus. (specialized blood test-trofile-needed to check for this type of HIV virus) “condom for CD4 cell” Can be used in initial therapy, or as salvage.
Abacavir: needs blood test: HLA B5701 allele testing PRIOR to dosing. • If POSITIVE, then patient has high likelihood of developing abacavir allergic reaction
Creatinine; urinalysis. • Use this prior to dosing and every 3-6 months for patients, especially those on tenofovir containing regimens. Elevated urine protein, elevated creatinine are indications to considers switching tenofovir to another medication
Bilirubin, ALT, AST • Bilirubins can be used as a marker for compliance for atazanavir • Bilirubin >3.5 or yellow eyes may be indication for changing atazanavir
All HIV meds (except for fuzeon) have some liver toxicity so ALT, Ast should be monitored as well. • Hep C can get better with HIV treatment (avoid atazanavir) • Hep B treatment gets better with truvada
CBC with plts and diff • Thromboctopenia can improve within a few days of starting HIV meds • AZT may initially worsen, and then improve anemia
Hemogloblin A1C, glucose • PI’s make diabetes more likely • Insulin resistance (pre-diabetic) presents as elevated HBA1c first.
Amylase, lipase • Perform when clinical suspicion of pancreatitis • Not helpful for routine monitoring if patient does not have symptoms of pancreatitis.