Language Maintenance and RevivalsPertemuan 4 Matakuliah : G0362/Sociolingustics Tahun : 2007
Learning Outcomes Pada akhir pertemuan ini, diharapkan mahasiswa akan mampu : • Menerangkan faktor-faktor peyebab kematian suatu bahasa • Menyebutkan cara-cara untuk melestarikan suatu bahasa
Outline Materi • Pelestarian Bahasa • Penghidupan kembali suatu bahasa
How can a language die? • When there’s no more speakers of it • This can be a result of a natural disaster, e.g. the whole tribe wiped out by a volcano eruption, tsunami, or a war. • Because of other language domination, the people gradually use the dominant language.
Examples • Latin now has no native speakers. However, the language is still being used in limited domains such as church services, medical, and biology terms. • Some of Aboriginal languages in Australia have disappeared as their older native speakers have died, and younger speakers turn to English.
Language Maintenance • How can a minority language be maintained? • Families live close to one another • Frequent contacts, e.g. family gathering • Contact with homeland (e.g. frequent visit from people from country of origin) • In-group marriage • Religious meetings or other activities using the minority language • Publication in minority language • Schools
Language Reversals • There are examples of efforts to revive a language: • In Israel, Hebrew –the language of rituals and religious ceremonies—was chosen to be the national language. So, the government make all necessary arrangement to teach and make the people use it. • In Wales, schools teach subjects in Welsh as well as English to minimize the use of English by young people.
Conclusions • A language can vanish when • There is a disaster that wipes out all its speakers • There is a gradual but continuous shift toward the majority language • The government and the community need to do every effort to maintain a language • Language reversal/revival can happen as exemplified by Hebrew