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Assessment instruments. Types classroom assessment. Placement assessment • Screening assessment • Formative assessment • Summative assessment ( Berk R A, 2002) Are the students qualified, to advance to the next, course level ?. Millers Pyramid. Types of classroom assessment
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Types classroom assessment • Placement assessment • • Screening assessment • • Formative assessment • • Summative assessment • (Berk R A, 2002) Are the students qualified, to advance to the next, course level?
Millers Pyramid • Types of classroom assessment • Placement assessment • • Screening assessment • • Formative assessment • • Summative assessment • (Berk R A, 2002)
Exercise Reflect for a moment and write down assessment instruments that you know and how they influence your learning! Remember difference between method and instrument: Method of travel = by land, sea, air… Instrument of travel = train, bus, ship, plane…
Taxonomies • Classification of objectives or skills • • Hierarchic • – To achieve higher level one must • master lower one • • Motivation for holistic form of • education
Validity Proper assessment instrument? – Thermometer -> Temperature – Thermometer x-> Weight – MCQ -> Know & understand – MCQ x-> Show, demonstrate, do
• Content (=direct) validity • – Relevance? • – Representative? • – Subjective! • • Construct (=indirect) validity • – Test result -> Competence?
Reliability • Test-retest reliability • • Equivalent forms reliability • • Split-half reliability • • Scorer/rater reliability • – Inter- vs. intrarater reliability
Factors in clinical skills assessment that lead to lower reliability • Two few stations or too little testing time • Check list that do not discriminate (too easy or too hard) • Unreliable patients or inconsistent role players • Idiosyncratic examiners • Administration problems
Engaging with data • Write down some observationsabout the data. What do you see? • 2. Suggest explanations (hypotheses) • for the data. • 3. How would you test the hypotheses?
Feasibility • Cost in terms of resources and time of Construction • • Marking • • Organisation • • Quality feedback
Utility • • U = Utility • • R = Reliability • • V = Validity • • E = Educational impact • • A = Acceptability • • C = Cost
Types of assessment • Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) • Modified Essay Questions (MEQs) • Patient Management Problems (PMPs) • Traditional essays questions • Structured questions .filling the blanks • True or false questions
Professionalism approaches to tasks Able to do
12 curriculum outcomes. SMS What the Clinician is able to do-doing the right thing How the clinician approaches Their practice-doing the thing right The clinician as professional The right person doing it
What the doctor is able to do 1-7 • Competence in clinical skills • Competence to perform procedures • Competence to investigate a patient • Competence to manage a patient • Competence in health promotion and disease control • Competence in skills of communication • Competence to retrieve and handle information
How the doctor approaches their practice 8-10 • With understanding of basic and clinical sciences • With appropriate attitudes, ethical understanding and understanding of legal responsibilities. • With appropriate decision making skills and clinical reasoning and judgment
The doctor as a professional 11-12 • Appreciation of the role of the doctor within the health service • Attitude for personal development
Multiple Choice Questions They are designed to test knowledge • Outcomes assessed- knowledge of basic skills and clinical sciences • 8patient investigation • 3 Patient management • 4 health promotion • Clinical reasoning ands judgment
Multiple Choice Questions They are designed to test knowledge Outcomes assessed- knowledge of basic skills and clinical sciences • 8patient investigation • 3 Patient management • 4 health promotion • Clinical reasoning ands judgment
What do multiple choices questions measure • Knowledge of specific facts • Knowledge of terminology • Knowledge of principles • Knowledge of procedures • The understanding and application of facts and principles • The understanding of procedures • Reasoning to some extent
How to construct MCQs • State the question positively • Construct options that are grammatically consistent with the item. • Do not use MCQs when other instruments are more appropriate.
Multiple choice questions- principles(rules) • The question itself or the stem must be appropriate • Have one correct response to the question • Distracters or the incorrect responses among the choices should be plausible
Extended Matched Items Management of diabetes in the community? start on oral hypoglycemic do diabetic annual review three monthly blood tests and review monthly blood tests and review Refer to podiatrist refer to hospital diabetes specialist nurse Trial diet control for 3 months 2start on twice daily insulin injection Do fasting blood sugars Do haemoglobin A/c blood test 1.
Extended matching Select the most appropriate course of action for the following patients Woman, mid 20s ,14 weeks pregnant to have glycosuria on routine resting in GP ante natal clinic 2. Woman,mid 50s ,BMI 30, just found to have fasting blood sugar 15mmol/l,HBA a18.5% 3. South Asian woman, mid 30s complaining of fatique, thirst and dry mouth
Extended Matched Items (EMIs) Purpose – test knowledge and reasoning skills Outcomes assessed- all outcomes with an emphasis on knowledge and clinical science • 8patient investigation • 3 Patient management • 4 health promotion • 5Clinical reasoning ands judgment
MCQ • Multiple Choice Questions are used to tests students’ factual knowledge and to some extent the critical thinking of students. An attempt is made to test higher levels of Bloom’s taxonomy and not mere recall of facts. Integratory
1.A cervical smear taken from a thirty five year old lady was found to have the following: • Mitotic cells • Multinucleated cells • Loss of chromatin granules • Cells that have lost adhesiveness
Mcq • Which of the following will be the best classification of this smear? • a)CIN I • b)CIN III • c)CIN IV • d)CIN V • e)CIN II
Which of the following will be the best classification of this smear? • a)CIN I • b)CIN III • c)CIN IV • d)CIN V • e)CIN II
2.Tissue Processing in Histology is the most critical stage in entire processes that go on in a Histology lab. Which of the following will determine the processing procedure? • Urgent diagnosis • The element to be demonstrated • The materials available • The skills involved • The size of tissue for examination
MEQ • Modified Essay Questions will be used to assess the students’ ability to integrate facts and problem solving skills, which are fundamental to good practice. Question requiring consolidation of facts and critical thinking will be asked.
1.A tissue section was found to be having a brown colour that was intracellular upon staining with H/E staining technique. The pigment was found to be soluble in alcoholic picric acid.
Possible scenarios i.What is the possible name of this pigment? ii.What features enabled you to identify the pigment? iii.What class would this pigment fall into? Assuming the pigment was not soluble in alcoholic acid picric acid, how would this affect your identification
Formatively as learning tool to stimulate discussion and top planfuturedevelopment • Can be used to stimulate and provide feedback – may be every three months what is going , intriguing / exciting ,worrying phenomenon.
What can MEQ measure ? MEQ can be used as a formal assessment technique • It can be used as an aid to learning. • It can be used as an adjunct to a lecture. • It presents good questions for group discussion. • It can be used as a self-instruction method. • It can be used as a self-audit device.
Construction of MEQ • Drawing up a draft of the subject area. • Circulating the draft to a team of fellow professionals to study it. • Each of the professional colleagues should be asked to provide the answer to each of the questions. • These responses should be studied and forms the basis for model answers. • The marks should be allocated according to consensus decisions
PATIENT MANAGEMENT PROBLEM (PMP) • Patient management problem (PMP) consists of short questions that require also short answers that revolve around managing a patient. They are intended to equip the student with knowledge, skills and attitude that are necessary in professional practice. • The main feature is that a series of questions are asked about a case and options are provided that leads to proper management of the patient. It tests students on a wide range of subjects.
What PMP can assess • Like the MEQ, PMP provides the opportunity for students to demonstrate their ability in patient management skills and problem solving skills in a variety of scenario. • The students are presented with simulated patients, real patient or imaginary patient in a paper and pencil format. The unfolding scenario is presented logically and the student is evaluated on the basis of the proper steps taken leading to the proper management of the patient.
Constructing a PMP • Constructing a PMP begins with a description of the symptoms of the patient and the resources that are available. The student is presented with the problem followed by a series of questions relating to management, diagnosis and investigations. Each question has a number of options from which the student must select. Beside each option are hidden instructions about how the student should proceed.
Steps in constructing PMP • Clearly define what it is you wish to test in the problem. Set realistic objectives for the group you are testing. • Select a problem that is meaningful and suitable. • Ensure that the sequence of management is logical. • Prepare the opening scene. This should compose of: the actual setting for the case, the presenting features of the patient, and the role of the user, the resources available and clear instructions.
Steps continue • Prepare a list of clinical choices which are consistent with the problem. • Pretest the PMP using a group of subject experts. Also try it out with one or two potential candidates. • Score the PMP. Allocate a mark for each individual choice on the PMP.