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Chapter 23 PowerPoint Presentation

Chapter 23

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Chapter 23

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  1. Chapter 23 The Head and Face

  2. Objectives • Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to: • Describe the anatomy of the head and face • Discuss common injuries to the head, face, teeth, eyes, nose, ears, and scalp • Explain various injuries of the brain that a person might suffer as a result of athletic participation

  3. Objectives (cont’d.) • Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to (cont’d.): • Explain the signs and symptoms of a concussion • Demonstrate on-field management and assessment of concussions

  4. The Head and Face Face includes - eyes, ears, nose, jaw, mouth Cranium (skull) - contains brain and spinal cord attachments

  5. The Eye • Composed of: • Sclera • Extrinsic and intrinsic eye muscles • Cornea • Choroid coat, iris, pupil • Lens and related structures • Retina • Optic disc and fovea

  6. Pathway of Vision • Images in the light cornea pupil lens where the light rays are bent or refracted retina rods and cones pick up stimulus optic nerve optic chiasma optic tracts occipital lobe of brain for interpretation

  7. Animation - Vision Click Here to Play Vision Animation

  8. Eye Injuries • Specks in the eyes • Blows (contusions) to the eye • Cuts, Punctures, and abrasions of the eye or eyelid • Orbital blow-out fracture • Hyphema • Conjunctivitis

  9. The Ear Outer ear - Visible part of ear Middle ear - Conducts sound to inner ear Inner ear - A maze of winding passageways (labyrinth)

  10. Animation - Hearing Click Here to Play Hearing Animation

  11. Injuries to the Ear • Cauliflower ear • Deformity caused by outer ear cartilage damage • Swimmer’s ear • Infection of skin covering outer ear canal • Foreign bodies lodged in the ear • Tympani (eardrum) rupture • Perforation of tympanic membrane

  12. The Nose • Composition of bone, cartilage, and skin • Projects from frontal bone of cranium and maxillae of face • Serves as an air passage between nostrils and throat, and sense of smell

  13. Injuries to the Nose • Epistemic • Nosebleed • Nasal fractures and septal deviations • Break in bone or damage to cartilaginous structures

  14. The Mouth and Jaw • Mouth • - Soft palate • - Hard palate • Jaw • - Maxilla • - Mandible

  15. Injuries to the Mouth and Jaw • Soft-tissue injuries • Cuts or lacerations to the lips, tongue, inside of the mouth, or face • Dental injuries • Injuries to the teeth and tooth-related structures • Jaw-related or bone-related injuries • Bruising, contusions, and fractures

  16. The Head • Cranium consists of: • Anterior bone • Frontal bone • Temporal bone • Mastoid sinuses • Occipital bone • Foramen magnum • Parietal bone • Sutures

  17. The Head (cont’d.) • The brain • Brainstem • Cerebellum • Cerebrum • Meninges

  18. Head Injuries • Approximately half U.S. trauma-related deaths are due to head injuries • Head injuries include: • Scalp injuries • Contusions and lacerations • Skull fractures • Uncommon but do occur

  19. Brain Injuries • Most serious threat to an athlete • Usually result from movement of the brain within the skull • Forceful impact • Transmission of force from skull to underlying tissue • Contusion or lacerations • Contrecoup

  20. Brain Injuries (cont’d.) • Concussion • Range from a common “bell-ringer” to loss of consciousness • Amnesia • Retrograde or antegrade • Postconcussion syndrome • Poorly understood • Follows a concussion

  21. Brain Injuries (cont’d.) • Brain contusions • Result when the brain collides against the skull or is raked over bony irregularities • Hemorrhage • Subdural, epidural, and intracranial hematoma • Secondary impact syndrome • Second head injury occurs before symptoms of a previous injury have been resolved

  22. Animation – Head Injuries Click Here to Play Head Injuries Animation

  23. Conclusion • Injuries to the head and neck can be serious and life threatening • Proper care and management can be the difference between full or partial recovery • A complete understanding of head and brain anatomy, as well as the mechanism of injury, will give the proper tools for accurate assessment