Unit One Chapter One Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Section 4 Chapter Two Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Section 4 Chapter Three Section 1 Section 2 Section 3
Chapter 1 Section 1: Converging Cultures
The Earliest Americans • How early did humans arrive to the Americas? • No one knows for sure. • 10,000 years ago. 30,000 years ago. • Originally these people were nomads. • Soon they developed into permanent settlements. • Civilization in the Americas was born.
The Earliest Americans • The first civilization to develop in the Americas was the Olmec in Mexico. • Followed by Aztecs and Maya. • 300 AD – Hohokam civilization begins in Arizona.
Columbus • Christopher Columbus • An Italian sailing for Spain searching for a route to Asia. • 1492 – Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria. • He landed on modern-day San Salvador Island. • He believed he was in Asia.
Other Expeditions • Europeans learn that America is not Asia. • They name the new land America in honor of Amerigo Vespucci. • 1494 – treaty gives Spanish rights to most of these new lands. • Conquistadors defeat many native tribes and begin building an empire.
Other Expeditions • How are the Spanish able to defeat the native people? • 1521 – Hernan Cortez defeats the Aztecs. • 1532 – Francisco Pizarro conquers the Inca.
Cultural Exchanges • Native Americans introduce Europeans to new things. • Foods like corn, squash, pumpkins, chocolate, and chewing gum. • Canoes, snowshoes, and ponchos. • Europeans introduce Native Americans to… • Wheat, rice, coffee, bananas, citrus fruits, and domesticated livestock.
Cultural Exchanges • Europeans also bring some not so positive things. • Germs – influenza, measles, chicken pox, typhus, smallpox. • With no immunities millions die. • Military conquests cost them their lives, land, and way of life.
More Expeditions • French and British begin explorations to the new world. • England sends John Cabot (discovers Canada in 1497). • Jacques Cartier sails for France. • They do not establish successful colonies unitl the 1600s.
New France • 1608 – Samuel de Champlain founded the outpost of Quebec. • Fur trade with natives begins. • Soon the French begin to expanding to the south. • Explore to the Mississippi and Gulf of Mexico. • Name the area Louisiana. • Founded New Orleans. • They begin growing sugar cane, rice and tobacco. • Begin to import slaves for labor.
Jamestown • Jamestown • Founded in Virginia. • Source of raw materials and outlets for British goods. • Colony prospers by growing tobacco. • 1619 – Colonists form a House of Burgesses to make their own laws.
Plymouth Colony • King James persecuted a group of Puritans. • They were called separatists because they wanted to be separate from the Anglican church. • They sought religious freedom. • 1620 • The Pilgrims set sail on the Mayflower. • Upon arrival they draft the Mayflower Compact. • They befriended the local Wampanoag people and had a harvest celebration – the first Thanksgiving. • Ten years later the Massachusetts Bay Colony is formed.
New England Grows • Religious dissention leads to other colonies. • Roger Williams gets banned from Massachusetts. • Heads south and founds the town of Providence. • Anne Hutchinson joins him. • 1644 – The colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations is formed. • 1679 – colony of New Hampshire forms.
New England Grows • Reverend Thomas Hooker • Disagreed with policy that only churchgoers could vote. • Moves his congregation to Connecticut valley. • Adopt America’s first written constitution – Fundamental Orders of Connecticut – allowing all adult men to vote and hold office.
New England Life • Puritan town life • Towns included a meetinghouse (church), school, and marketplace. • During town meetings locals would discuss problems. • This would lead to the creation of a local government. • People begin to believe in their right to self-government.
Issues With Natives • 1637 – War breaks out between English and the Pequot. • Pequot nearly exterminated. • 1670s – Colonial governments demand that Natives follow English laws and customs. • 1675 – Plymouth Colony executes three Wampanoag for murder. • King Philip’s War – named after Wampanoag leader Metacomet. • 1678 – Few natives left in New England.
The Middle Colonies • Dutch – Make claims to land south of Connecticut. • Henry Hudson – discovers the Hudson River Valley in New York. • New Netherland on Manhattan Island.
Changes • Charles II of England – Seizes New Netherland. • Gives it to his brother and part of it is renamed New York. • The rest becomes New Jersey.
William Penn • William Penn • His colony would have religious freedom and people would have a voice in government. • Would help fellow Quakers escape persecution. • They objected to mandatory taxes and military service. • Oppose violence as a means to settle disputes. • Penn’s colony will be named Pennsylvania. • Land on the coast in the east will become Delaware.
The Southern Colonies • Tobacco is king. • Virginia and Maryland are proprietary colonies. • Owned by an individual who could govern it any way they wanted (appoint officials, coin money, impose taxes, raise an army). • George Calvert – owner of Virginia. • Makes Virginia a refuge for Catholics. • Most that come are Protestant.
The Southern Colonies • Toleration Act (1649) – Maryland. • Grants religious toleration to all Christians in the colony. • Charles II gives some land to eight men. • This land is known as Carolina. • Soon becomes – North and South Carolina. • Georgia • Started by James Oglethorpe as a colony where England’s poor could start over.
Southern Life • Agriculture is the main focus. • Many in England become indentured servants. • People who signed contracts with colonists to receive free passage in return for four or more years of work, food, clothing, and shelter. • Reliance on African slaves grow.
Crisis Over Land • More people want land. There’s not enough land for everyone. Why? • Most opposed expansion because they did not want to risk war with the natives. • Bacon’s Rebellion – Nathaniel Bacon • Leads to westward expansion in Virginia. • More reliance on slaves and slave trade. • They no longer have to be freed.
Chapter 1 Section 2: A Diverse Society
Growth of the Colonies • Population of the colonies grow. • High birth rates and improved housing and sanitation. • Disease (typhoid, tuberculosis, cholera) remain a problem. • Triangular Trade • Trade between the colonies, England, Caribbean sugar planters, and Africa.
Growth of the Colonies • Social Hierarchy • Wealthy Merchants. • Artisans (skilled workers), innkeepers, shop owners. • Lower class – No skills, no property. • Indentured servants. • Slaves.
Immigration • Hundreds of thousands of people come to the colonies. • Germans – escaping religious wars. • Scots-Irish – escaping high taxes, religious discrimination. • Jews – religious reasons as well.
Women • Women do not have equal rights. • At first, women could not: • Own property • Make contracts or wills • Husbands: • Were sole guardians of children. • Allowed to physically discipline children and wives. • Single women had more rights.
Slaves • Between 1450 and 1870 • 10 to 12 million Africans were enslaved and sent to the Americas. • About 2 million died in route. • Referred to as the Middle Passage.
Slaves • 1775 • 540,000 slaves in the United States (20% of population). • Slave Codes – Kept slaves from: • Owning property. • Testifying against whites. • Being educated. • Moving about freely. • Meeting in large groups.
Acts • Charles II – Navigation Acts • All goods shipped from the colony be on English ships. • The Staple Act • All colonial imports had to go through England. • Increased price of goods in the colonies. • Merchants begin smuggling products to Europe, the Caribbean, and Africa.
The Glorious Revolution • King James II • Catholic. • People did not want a Catholic dynasty. • James’s Protestant daughter Mary claims the throne with her husband William. • Known as the “Glorious Revolution.” • Suggest that revolution is justified when individual rights were violated.
The Enlightenment • The Age of Enlightenment • John Locke – People are not born sinful. Their minds are blank slates that society and education could shape for the better. • Rousseau – Government should be formed by the consent of the people who would make their own laws. • Montesquieu – Three types of political power – executive, legislative, and judicial. Should be divided into three branches to protect the liberty of the people.
The Great Awakening • The Great Awakening • Widespread resurgence of religious fervor. • All people are equal before God. • Baptists, Presbyterians, and Methodists embrace new ideas. • The Enlightenment and Great Awakening incline Americans towards political independence.
Chapter 1 Section 3: The American Revolution
French and Indian War • French and Indian War • Fighting between British and French in frontier. • Natives allied with the French. • Treaty of Paris (1763) • The British triumph. • Treaty gives British all French territory east of the Mississippi except New Orleans. • Also gain Florida from Spain.
Unpopular Regulations • Proclamation of 1763 • Tried to halt expansion into Native American lands. • King George III wanted to avoid another war with natives. • Colonists wanted access to the Ohio River Valley. • Customs Controls • Sugar Act of 1764 – raised taxes on sugar, molasses, silk, wine, and coffee. • Quartering Act of 1765 – colonists had to provide shelter for British troops. • Stamp Act of 1765 – required stamps to be bought and placed on printed materials.
Unpopular Regulations • Stamp Act Congress • Only representatives elected by the colonists had the right to tax them. • “No taxation without representation.” • When the Stamp Act took effect, colonists ignored it and boycotted British goods. • Stamp Act is repealed.
Townshend Acts • Townshend Acts • New customs duties on glass, lead, paper, paint, and tea. • March 5, 1770 – Boston • Colonists began taunting a British soldier guarding a customs house. • British troops opened fire and killed five colonists. • Known as the Boston Massacre. • Townshend Acts repealed except the one on tea.
Tea Act • Tea Act • Favored British East India company. • American merchants outraged. • Boston – 150 men dump 342 chests of tea overboard – Boston Tea Party. • Coercive Acts • Used to punish Massachusetts. • One law shut down Boston’s port until tea was paid for. • 2,000 troops stationed in New England. • Referred to as the Intolerable Acts.
First Continental Congress • First Continental Congress • Protest the Intolerable Acts. • Approved a plan to boycott British goods.
Revolution • Revolution begins in Massachusetts. • Minute-men – men who were trained and ready to go at a minute’s notice. • Some colonists still felt a loyalty to the King. • Called “Loyalists” or “Tories.” • Those who thought the British were tyrants? • “Patriots.”
Revolution • April 18, 1775 – British troops set out from Boston heading for Concord. • Old North Church – “One if by land, two if by sea.” • Messengers carry word ahead of them – Paul Revere. • Lexington • First shot of the war (the Shot Heard ‘round the World).
Revolution • Second Continental Congress • Adopted the “militia.” • Chose George Washington as commander. • Successes of the militia builds American confidence.
Independence • Olive Branch Petition • Sent to King George III to resolve grievances peacefully. • He rejected it. • Thomas Payne – Common Sense • King George III is a tyrant – time to declare independence. • July 4, 1776 • Congress issues the Declaration of Independence. • The colonies are now the United States of America. • American Revolution officially started.
Independence • Continental Army (Video) (Video) • Could not match the British in size and funding. • They were fighting on home ground. • Also made use of unconventional, guerilla tactics.
Victory • Yorktown • Last major battle (1781). • British General Cornwallis surrendered. • The war ends. • Treaty of Paris • British recognize the United States. • Mississippi River is the western border.
Chapter 1 Section 4: The Constitution
Something New • Creating a Republic • Power resides with citizens. • Citizens entitled to vote. • Power exercised by elected officials. • Elected officials responsible to the citizens. • Must govern according to a constitution. • All people are equal under the law. • What about women and slaves?