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Radiative Inflation and Dark Energy

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  1. Alexander Merle Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) Stockholm Radiative Inflation and Dark Energy Based on: 1010.5726 [hep-ph] (Di Bari, King, Luhn, AM, Schmidt-May) “TheReturn of de Sitter“ 2011 March 16

  2. Contents: • Introduction • Theprincipalidea • Inflation • Dark Energy • An out of thisworld RIDE scenario • Conclusions

  3. 1. Introduction

  4. 1. Introduction http://wmap.gsfc.nasa.gov/

  5. 1. Introduction (well?) known... http://wmap.gsfc.nasa.gov/

  6. 1. Introduction (well?) known... Neutralino, KK, gravitino,... http://wmap.gsfc.nasa.gov/

  7. 1. Introduction (well?) known... Constant? Quintessence?? Neutralino, KK, gravitino,... http://wmap.gsfc.nasa.gov/

  8. 1. Introduction • Werequire an explanationforthemysteriousDark Energy in theUniverse:

  9. 1. Introduction • Werequire an explanationforthemysteriousDark Energy in theUniverse: • Vacuumenergy: famousmismatch of 120 ordersof magnitude... Wrong?!?

  10. 1. Introduction • Werequire an explanationforthemysteriousDark Energy in theUniverse: • Vacuumenergy: famousmismatch of 120 ordersof magnitude... Wrong?!? • Dynamicalscalarfieldcould also explaindarkenergyQuintessence

  11. 1. Introduction • Werequire an explanationforthemysteriousDark Energy in theUniverse: • Vacuumenergy: famousmismatch of 120 ordersof magnitude... Wrong?!? • Dynamicalscalarfieldcould also explaindarkenergyQuintessence BUT:origin of thisscalarfieldunclear

  12. 1. Introduction • Werequire an explanationforthemysteriousDark Energy in theUniverse: • Vacuumenergy: famousmismatch of 120 ordersof magnitude... Wrong?!? • Dynamicalscalarfieldcould also explaindarkenergyQuintessence BUT:origin of thisscalarfieldunclear Suggests a connection to particlephysics

  13. 1. Introduction Furtherissues:

  14. 1. Introduction Furtherissues: • Flatnessproblem: Whyis k=0? • Horizonproblem: Whyis (ΔT/T)l>1 ~ 10-5?

  15. 1. Introduction Furtherissues: • Flatnessproblem: Whyis k=0? • Horizonproblem: Whyis (ΔT/T)l>1 ~ 10-5? http://wmap.gsfc.nasa.gov/

  16. 1. Introduction Inflationcansolvetheseproblems:

  17. 1. Introduction Inflationcansolvetheseproblems: • exponential expansion of theearlyUniverse

  18. 1. Introduction Inflationcansolvetheseproblems: • exponential expansion of theearlyUniverse • can also bedescribedby a scalarfield

  19. 1. Introduction Inflationcansolvetheseproblems: • exponential expansion of theearlyUniverse • can also bedescribedby a scalarfield soundssimilar to Quintessence

  20. 1. Introduction Inflationcansolvetheseproblems: • exponential expansion of theearlyUniverse • can also bedescribedby a scalarfield soundssimilar to Quintessence typically, particlephysicistslike to unifythings...

  21. 1. Introduction Inflationcansolvetheseproblems: • exponential expansion of theearlyUniverse • can also bedescribedby a scalarfield soundssimilar to Quintessence typically, particlephysicistslike to unifythings... Thisiswhatwetried to do!!

  22. 2. Thegeneralidea

  23. 2. Thegeneralidea Goal:wewant to unify Inflation & Quintessence

  24. 2. Thegeneralidea Goal:wewant to unify Inflation & Quintessence Particularly simple modelthatdoesthe job: • Rosenfeld & Frieman JCAP 0509 (2005) 003

  25. 2. Thegeneralidea Goal:wewant to unify Inflation & Quintessence Particularly simple modelthatdoesthe job: • Rosenfeld & Frieman JCAP 0509 (2005) 003 • complexscalarfield:

  26. 2. Thegeneralidea Goal:wewant to unify Inflation & Quintessence Particularly simple modelthatdoesthe job: • Rosenfeld & Frieman JCAP 0509 (2005) 003 • complexscalarfield: • Inflaton potential:

  27. 2. Thegeneralidea Goal:wewant to unify Inflation & Quintessence Particularly simple modelthatdoesthe job: • Rosenfeld & Frieman JCAP 0509 (2005) 003 • complexscalarfield: • Inflaton potential: Mexican hat potential:

  28. 2. Thegeneralidea (WikimediaCommons)

  29. 2. Thegeneralidea • dependsonly on theinflaton η • at theminimum, an (accidental) U(1)PQsymmetry of the potential will bebrokenNambu-Goldstoneboson φ (WikimediaCommons)

  30. 2. Thegeneralidea • dependsonly on theinflaton η • at theminimum, an (accidental) U(1)PQsymmetry of the potential will bebrokenNambu-Goldstoneboson φ (WikimediaCommons)

  31. 2. Thegeneralidea • dependsonly on theinflaton η • at theminimum, an (accidental) U(1)PQsymmetry of the potential will bebrokenNambu-Goldstoneboson φ (WikimediaCommons) ifthis GB obtains a small potential, itcanserve as Quintessencefield

  32. 2. Thegeneralidea onepossibility: axion-like potential due to non-perturbativegravitationaleffects (“gravitationalinstantons“: Kallosh et al., PR D52 (1995) 912)

  33. 2. Thegeneralidea onepossibility: axion-like potential due to non-perturbativegravitationaleffects (“gravitationalinstantons“: Kallosh et al., PR D52 (1995) 912) important: m4mustnecessarilybesmall (meV)4

  34. 2. Thegeneralidea onepossibility: axion-like potential due to non-perturbativegravitationaleffects (“gravitationalinstantons“: Kallosh et al., PR D52 (1995) 912) important: m4mustnecessarilybesmall (meV)4 Thismodeliseasy and nice!

  35. 2. Thegeneralidea onepossibility: axion-like potential due to non-perturbativegravitationaleffects (“gravitationalinstantons“: Kallosh et al., PR D52 (1995) 912) important: m4mustnecessarilybesmall (meV)4 Thismodeliseasy and nice! BUT:it has TWO problems...

  36. 2. Thegeneralidea

  37. 2. Thegeneralidea

  38. 2. Thegeneralidea • nearlyφ4-Inflation • practicallyruled out by WMAP3/WMAP5

  39. 2. Thegeneralidea • nearlyφ4-Inflation • practicallyruled out by WMAP3/WMAP5 • Quintessencescale & fieldmassstronglyconstrain f • f > 0.5 MP (Dutta & Sorbo, PR D75 (2007) 063520) • very high, maybetrans-Planckian... • HENCE: wehave to overcometheseproblems

  40. 2. Thegeneralidea • nearlyφ4-Inflation • practicallyruled out by WMAP3/WMAP5 • Quintessencescale & fieldmassstronglyconstrain f • f > 0.5 MP (Dutta & Sorbo, PR D75 (2007) 063520) • very high, maybetrans-Planckian... • HENCE: wehave to overcometheseproblems

  41. 2. Thegeneralidea • WAY OUT: RIDE

  42. 2. Thegeneralidea • WAY OUT: RIDE • φ2- instead of φ4-Inflation:

  43. 2. Thegeneralidea • WAY OUT: RIDE • φ2- instead of φ4-Inflation: •  okay withcurrentdata

  44. 2. Thegeneralidea • WAY OUT: RIDE • φ2- instead of φ4-Inflation: •  okay withcurrentdata • connection to Quintessenceonlybyradiativecorrections (like MSSM Higgsmass):

  45. 2. Thegeneralidea • WAY OUT: RIDE • φ2- instead of φ4-Inflation: •  okay withcurrentdata • connection to Quintessenceonlybyradiativecorrections (like MSSM Higgsmass): • disentanglesthetightconnectionbetweenthe Inflation and Dark Energy scales (onlylog-dependence)

  46. 2. Thegeneralidea • Tasks to beaddressed:

  47. 2. Thegeneralidea • Tasks to beaddressed: • testInflation: calculate nS and r •  will turn out to be okay with WMAP7

  48. 2. Thegeneralidea • Tasks to beaddressed: • testInflation: calculate nS and r •  will turn out to be okay with WMAP7 • test Dark Energy: alreadydone (pNGBquintessence, e.g. Dutta & Sorbo, PR D75 (2007) 063520)

  49. 2. Thegeneralidea • Tasks to beaddressed: • testInflation: calculate nS and r •  will turn out to be okay with WMAP7 • test Dark Energy: alreadydone (pNGBquintessence, e.g. Dutta & Sorbo, PR D75 (2007) 063520) • try to find a frameworkwithinparticlephysicswherethismodelcanberealized • supersymmetricsequesteredscenario

  50. 2. Thegeneralidea • Tasks to beaddressed: • testInflation: calculate nS and r •  will turn out to be okay with WMAP7 • test Dark Energy: alreadydone (pNGBquintessence, e.g. Dutta & Sorbo, PR D75 (2007) 063520) • try to find a frameworkwithinparticlephysicswherethismodelcanberealized • supersymmetricsequesteredscenario Let ‘s do that!!!