The Current Situation • According to the Ministry of Education (1993), “All young people in New Zealand have the right to gain, through a state schooling system, a broad, balanced education that prepares them for effective participation in society.” • However, currently within secondary schools there is a ‘power asymmetry’(Simon, J., 1992). • Pakeha values, beliefs and systems are regarded as normal, with the pervading assumption of superiority. Whereas, Maoritanga is currently only selectively used. (Connell, S., 1989) • Even though teachers want all their students, including Maori, to do well, many do not understand the important role culture plays in a student’s learning. (Jill Bevan-Brown, 2003 p 1). • Male and female Maori students are consistently over-represented in early school leaver statistics and underachieving in NCEA.(got to check this one)
The key issue • Our current education system does not ensure equitable outcomes for Māori students (Bell & Carpenter, 1994). • As a cohort, they consistently under-perform the norm (Bishop et al. 2007).
Equality of Opportunity versus Equity • Equality of opportunity involves treating every student the same in terms of providing them an ‘opportunity’ to be educated whereas equity is about treating every student based on their individual need so that they have an equal chance of achieving the same outcome (Ball, 1994). • Therefore to make Equal Opportunity = Equity, we need to provide a multi-curricula, multi-pedagogical educational system whereby the classroom system is individually tailored to each student to achieve the “best” outcome for each student according to that individual student’s needs (Bridges, 2009).
What if ...? • For those of you who are still not sure that we should be concerned with equity consider what position you would be in if the TangataWhenua were in the majority group today? In terms of: • Language used • Curriculum • Teaching styles • Culture
What does an Equitable and Inclusive Classroom look like? • In general we would see: • A • B • c
The Māori Cultural Perspective • Rangatiratanga • TaongaTukuIko • Ako • Kia pikiakeingāraruraru o tekainga • Whanau • Kaupapa • NOTE: One slide each to explain each item above
Rangatiratanga • Giving the individual the right to exercise authority over themselves. This includes being able to act for themselves, make decisions and take control of their lives. It is used for the betterment of the entire group, not just the individual. (Bevan-Brown. J., 2003, p 19)
Ako • Akomeans reciprocal learning. The teacher’s role is as a facilitator in the classroom, setting up an environment where the student can also add their own knowledge to the discussion. This type of organisation is conducive to shared learning, as each member of the group is able to contribute, which will result in group knowledge building. (Te Kotahitanga Phase 3)
Whanau • Maori parents and whanau are interested in their children’s education and want to be actively involved. • This community is frustrated about the lack of cultural equity in classrooms • Maori are sometimes hesitant to approach schools to enquire about making changes. This stems from personal negative experiences of school. • However, Maori do want more say in education • A need has been recognised for more parental and teacher support, and open communication. (Ministry of Education, 1998)
What recent research has shown. • Te Kōtahitanga and others: What these programs have shown is that if we as teachers: • have the right attitudes and beliefs, • if we take the time to find out the specific needs of the cohort we are targeting and • if we address these needs well within the context of our educational system, we can achieve impressive positive results with this cohort.
High Level Summary of Key Success Strategies • Manaakitanga - • Mana Motuhake - • NgāWhakapiringatanga – • Wāngana - • Ako - • Kōtahitanga – • NOTE:one page for each of these as well and any others we identify
Manaakitanga • Teachers need to extend hospitality, kindness and respect towards students in the classroom, enabling Maori students to feel that they can be themselves. • It is important that teachers care for Maori children as Māori, taking into account that they bring cultural understandings and different perspectives to the class. Instruction and activities should be included to reflect and build on this knowledge. (Te Kotahitanga, 2007, p29)
Ako • An effective classroom environment is where lots of discussion and co-0perative group learning and knowledge sharing can take place (Pere, 1982, p.70) • Teachers can implement this by including frequent opportunities for group work.
Characteristics of Successful Teachers • Most importantly, build trusting, relationships with students. • Celebrate the cultural diversity of their learners and treat as an opportunity for all students to learn more about our world. • Take time to build their own cross cultural knowledge. • Identify and own their own culture, being aware of the impact this has in the classroom. • Always hold high expectations which is reflected in quality instruction of the curriculum. • Have a safe enviroment for students to participate and collaborate with interactive learning activities. These should be fun, real world and relevant. • Scaffold • Include students perspectives and contributions, treating them with respect and meaning. (Saravia-Shore M., & Garcia, E. 1995, p49)
How to Make Inclusive and Equitable Schools a Reality for Māori students?
What Schools need to do. • Treat Maoritanga as mainstream (normal), incorporating it into all aspects of school life. (Bevan-Brown, J., 2003,p10)
Works Cited • Ministry of Maori Development/Te PuniKokiri, Making Education work for Maori/Te WhakamahiiteMatauranga mo teiwi Maori: Report on Consultation (July 1998) • Bevan-Brown, J., The Cultural Self Review, (2003) New Zealand Council for Educational Research, Wellington. • Connell, S., Beyond Guilt. (1989) Wellington: Radio New Zealand. • Simon, J., ‘Good intentions, but...’ In Quest Rapuara (Ed.), Cultural identity: A resource for educators (p39-43).(1992) Wellington: Quest Rapuara • Te Kōtahitanga Phase 3 Whānaungatanga: Establishing a Culturally Responsive Pedagogy of Relations in Mainstream Secondary School Classrooms R. Bishop, M. Berryman, T. Cavanagh & L. Teddy (Min of Ed, 2007) • Saravia-Shore M., & Garcia, E. 1995. Diverse teaching strategies for diverse learners. In R.W. Cole (Ed), Educating everybody’s children(pp47-57) Alexandria, VA: ASCD • Pere, R.M. (1982) Ako: concepts and learning in the Maori tradition. Hamilton, New Zealand: Waikato University