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Stimulation

Stimulation

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Stimulation

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  1. Stimulation

  2. Increasing Fracture Pressure RII Gained Injection Area Date Fracture Damage

  3. Fracture Plugging and Ballooning Fracture Plugged RII Fracture Growth Date Fracture Damage

  4. Existing Fracture

  5. Solid Deposition

  6. Fracture Growth

  7. Fracture Plugged

  8. Determining Slope f(temperature, damage, pore pressure) RII f(fracture pressure) Date

  9. Determining Slope F(Water Quality) RII F(Fracture Pressure) Date

  10. Mechanism • Blue lines • Top line - fracturing pressure • Bottom line - gain area from fracture • Red lines • Positive gradient - matrix (stationary fracture) injection • Drop caused by the gain in area

  11. Stimulation Flag • Frac. Pressure line intersects Gain: • Fracture completely filled • Dramatic rise in pressure • Stimulation: • Establish trend • Predict Intersection • Stimulate in advance

  12. Progressive Increase in the plugging slope RII vs. Date Phillips Chalk Field

  13. RII vs. Cumulative Injection Increasing Fracture Pressure Maersk A Field

  14. Modes of Injection Red - Fracture Blue - Stationary Fracture Yellow - Plugged Maersk A Field

  15. Modes of Injection Red - Fracture Blue - Stationary Fracture Yellow - Plugged Increasing Fracture Pressure Maersk A Field

  16. Modes of Injection • Strong correlation from previous 2 plots • Change of injection mode between fracturing & matrix

  17. Constant Fracture Pressure Sandstone Example BP PB Unit

  18. Correlation with PEA 23 • PB Unit • PB Unit the gradient of bounding lines = 0 • Both mechanisms work together to create relatively constant RII • Both theories seem to correlate well

  19. Correlation with PEA 23 • Maersk A Field • Account for increasing fracture pressure • Recalculate RII with increasing F.P. • Should see constant RII

  20. RII From Fracture Pressure Maintained Injection Maersk A Field

  21. Side Benefit • Predict/Estimate - Fracture pressure • Correlate to Step Rate Test

  22. Stimulation Evaluation Stimulation RII RII Baseline Date

  23. Definition • Baseline - best performance • RII - current performance • Stimulation - commonly acidizing

  24. Stimulation Evaluation Slope Before RII DRII Before Date

  25. Stimulation Evaluation Slope After RII DRII After Date

  26. Factors • DRII - measure of damage • Slope - rate of damage accumulation

  27. Example Elf Field 3

  28. Example 2 Maersk Field A

  29. Improvement Ratio Ideal Case Hall Plot Examination RII Field Data Stimulation Date

  30. Ideal Hall Plot • Ideal or initial injectivity immediately following stimulation

  31. Improvement Ratio • Shows the gain in injectivity

  32. Hall Plot Elf Field 3

  33. Hall Plot Maersk Field A