MIS 2000 Class 13 Group Processes and Group Support Systems Updated 2018
Outline • Workgroup (Team) Concepts & Project Team • Team Life Process • Group Support Systems • Distributed Teams • Summary
Workgroup Concepts • Workgroup or team: • Collection of people working together on a specific task for a defined period of time. • Team is an organization in small with a shorter life span. • An organization can be team-based (e.g., Protegra; se Ch. 10). • Workgroup defined by: • Task: What needs to be done • Work roles: Who does what • Timeline: Start and end point, landmarks, schedule More…
- Members depend directly on each other – interdependence: can be sequential, parallel, & reciprocal (process coordinaiton aspect). • Group could do more than an individual – synergy • But there may be problems in teamwork: • some members do not put in their part (free ride) • members accept mainstream thinking without reasoning (groupthink) - Successconditions: member composition, communication, leadership
Project Team • Project Team (PT) is a kind of team that performs in fundamental production processes (see case later). • PT has a key role in project-driven organizations • (research, marketing, construction, public accounting, • software development) • PT has lots of autonomy as it manages work, money, time. • Collocated and Distributed team
Team life process • A set of complex activities (phases) from team formation to team’s delivery of product and disbanding. Cyclical process. • Each complex activity is a process in itself: 1. Set team task & team 2. Establish team roles & leadership 3. Create project schedule, Set communication channels 1. Forming 2. Storming 5. Disbanding 4. Performing 3. Norming Developing/Using Group Mind Focus of GSS More
Team life cycle (cont.) 4. Performing phase – most imporatnt; Execute project activities Socialize Deliver product - Group mind may develop – better performance 5. Create final reports & close project 1. Forming 5. Disbanding 2. Storming 4. Performing / Thinking as Group 3. Norming
Kinds of Group Support Systems • Support the Performing phase (sub-process) in the team life cycle. • Project Management System (PMS): Covers activities, people, time, financials (tracking work hours, expenses), management of versions of developed software, and sharing of project documentation. A team project is planned as a process that consists of activities. Activities employ team members, and are timed. People get paid at a certain rate, and PMS calculates the pay, variance from budget, etc. (next slide). More…
Project Management System output: Gantt Chart Inventory Management System Activity Time 2016 2016 2016 2016 2016 John John People Jean Jean, Alex Alex Money: Hourly rate is entered in a separate sheet for each person, and the system multiplies it by planned time entered in this sheet. With the progress function, the budget balance is tracked. PMS generates many reports automatically. The Gantt Chart shows plan and execution of a project. More…
Boeing-Rocketdyne’s Internet Notebook PMS • Project: Developing an economical type of rocket engine in 10 months • Distributed team made of engineers from Boeing and two partners; Very successful outcomes. • GSS supporting the team: Internet Notebook (repository of design documentation with online access via laptops, email notifications on project progress tracked, hypertext links on learning sources). • Useful documenting functions that required more time & effort were underused – surprising to management. SCHEDULE Linked learning sources Document repository Internet Notebook PMS
Kinds of Group Support Systems 2. File Sharing System - Google drive, drop boxes; stand-alone or included in other GSS. 3. Application Sharing System- Sharing screens and programs; e.g., engineers cooperating on the same diagram, Google Docs.
Supervisor Kinds of Group Support Systems Customer Workflow Support System Back-line experts 4. Workflow Support System - Electronically connecting individual tasks in a process. Example: a Customer Workflow Support System in a software company. Questions+Answers Product documentation Front-line representatives Clients
Kinds of Group Support Systems 5. Teleconferencing Systems - Meeting at distance; communication systems serving dispersed groups • videoconferencing (e.g., Skype) • private email • electronic bulletin boards (e.g., UMLearn) • chat (part of social media)
Kinds of Group Support Systems 6. Group Decision Support System - Group brainstorming and option selection via GDSS. Parallel coordination. Facilitator – Moderates the session Decision makers – team or ad-hoc group
Distributed Teams • Team of our time! YOU will work in it! • Challenges for distributed teams: • Aligning workflows over space & time; IS for communication and work support are necessary • Following same values and norms • Maintaining trust in others and their work • Effective communication is the key to sucess
Summary • Workgroup (Team) is a collection of people working together on a specific task for a defined period. • Some key aspects: interdependence, synergy, composition, communication, leadership. • Project team plays key role in project-driven organizations. • Team life cycle is a process that consists of five phases (sub-processes). • GSS types are: Project Management System, File Sharing System, Applications Sharing, System, Workflow Support System, Teleconferencing System, & Group Decision Support System. • In a distributed (virtual) team members work at different locations and face particular challenges.