Republic of Turkey Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs Developing a Perspective for Management of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds in Water Resources Esra Şıltu Expert DG Water Management/Department of Water Quality XVI World Water Congress May 31, 2017 Cancun/Mexico
Outline • Aim of the study • Endocrine disruptors • Rationale for controlling in water resources • Methodology • Identification of relevant EDCs • Initial list of EDCs • Sectoral inventory of EDCs • Monitoring EDCs • Developing water quality standards for EDCs • Future plans • Conclusions
Aim of the study • Developing a management perspective for endocrine disruptingcompounds (EDCs) in surface waters of Turkey • Identification of endocrine disruptors occurring in surface waters • Specifying the sources of endocrine disruptors • Revealing the levels of these chemicals in surface waters and wastewaters • Investigating the fate in the aquatic environment and wastewater treatment technologies • Deriving water quality standards
Endocrine disruptors • UN definition: An endocrine disruptor is an exogenous substance or mixture that alters function(s) of the endocrine system and consequently causes adverse health effects in an intact organism, or its progeny, or (sub)populations
Endocrine disruptors • Mechanisms of disruption: • They may mimic the biological activity of a hormone. • They may prevent the activity of the natural hormone. • They may alter the amounts of natural hormones in body. • They may interfere with the metabolic processes in the body, affecting the synthesis or breakdown rates of the natural hormones.
Endocrine disruptors • Effects of endocrine disruptors: • Developmental malformations • Interference with reproduction • Increased cancer risk • Disturbances in the immune and nervous system function • Lose of biodiversity due to similar adverse effects on wildlife
Endocrine disruptors • Examples of endocrine disruptors: • Natural hormones released to the environment from any animal • Natural chemicals like phytoestrogens • Synthetically produced pharmaceuticals • Man-made chemicalslikeindustrialsolventsorlubricantsandtheirbyproducts, plasticsandplasticizers, pesticides, antibacterials
Rationale of controlling in water resources • EDCs entering water resources via: • Urban and industrial wastewaters • Atmospheric deposition • Agricultural and land use activities • Other anthropogenic activities • Water resources: • Home for many species • Vital sources for all organisms • Drinking and bathing water
Methodology • Identify the relevant EDCs • Identify the sources of EDCs/ sectoral inventory • Detect the levels of pollution in water resources via monitoring • Deriving ambient water quality standards • Taking regulatory action • Bridging science and policy!
Identification of relevant EDCs • International studies • WHO and UNEP EDC lists: EDCs Reports 2002 & 2012 • NGOs EDC lists: TEDx list, EWG’s dirty dozen • Studies of EU &USA • Previous studies conducted in Turkey regarding hazardous chemicals in surface waters • List of pharmaceuticals licensed in Turkey • List of chemicals produced or imported more than 1 tone annually in Turkey • Capacity reports of industrial facilities
Initial list of EDCs List 1: • PBDEs (12) • PCDD/Fs & dioxin-like PCBs (29) • PCBs (6) • HBCDDs (5) • Nonylphenols (3) • Octylphenols (2) • PAHs (16)
Initial list of EDCs List 1: • DDT isomers and metabolites (4) • Butyl tin compounds (3) • PFOS & PFOA (2) • HCH mixtures and isomers (4) • Cyclodien pesticides (4) • Other pesticides and industrial chemicals (31)
Initial list of EDCs List 2: Prioritisation
Initial list of EDCs List 3: Pharmaceuticals • 38 human pharmaceutical active ingredients • 13 veterinary pharmaceutical active ingredients
Sectoral inventory of EDCs • Literature review for identifying the sources of EDCs in “Draft Lists” • Capacity reports of more than 10,000 industrial facilities in Turkey • Sectoral inventory constructed for specific pollutants • Results of wastewater analysis
Sectoral inventory of EDCs Most potent sources of EDCs based on NACE classification: • 37.00-Sewerage • 20.20-Manufacture of pesticides and other agrochemical products • 21.20-Manufacture of pharmaceutical preparations • 20.30-Manufacture of paints, varnishes and similar coatings, printing ink and mastics • 20.42-Manufacture of perfumes and toilet preparations
Sectoral inventory of EDCs Most potent sources of EDCs based on NACE classification: • 20.15-Manufacture of fertilisers and nitrogen compounds • 20.16-Manufacture of plastics in primary forms • 38.21-Treatment and disposal of non-hazardous waste • 38.32-Recovery of sorted materials • 20.14-Manufacture of other organic basic chemicals
Monitoring EDCs • Detecting the levels of pollution in water resources • Identifying the sources and extent of EDC emissions • Pilot study: • 1-year long monitoring studies • Frequency: seasonal (4 times in a year) • Marmara Basin (industry intense area) • BatıAkdeniz Basin (agriculture and tourism intense area)
Developing water quality standards for EDCs • Toxicity based standards • Acute and chronic toxicity endpoints (EC50, LC50, NOEC etc.) • Methodology defined in EU WFD Guidance Document No: 27 • Environmentalqualitystandards (EQS)
Developing water quality standards for EDCs • For the control of acute effects: Maximum allowable standards (MAC-EQS) • For the control of chronic effects: Annual average standards (AA-EQS) • Sediment EQS • Biota EQS
Future plans • Analyzing the fate of EDCs in water resources • Conducting pressure-impact analysis for EDCs • Investigating the wastewater treatment technologies for removal of EDCs • Deriving wastewater discharge standards for EDCs • Controlling the sources of EDCs by regulatory instruments
Conclusions • Control of EDCs in water resources all around the world is of significant importance • Urgent regulatory action is needed! • Scientific studies are integrated to policy making process in Turkey to develop a management perspective for EDCs • Approach of deriving water quality standards is of question: toxicity based standards or a novel approach is needed? • Regulatory action: ban or define set standards?
Teşekkür ederim... firstname.lastname@example.org suyonetimi.ormansu.gov.tr TR Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs DG Water Management