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A&P

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A&P

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  1. A&P Chapter 3 Notes Cells & tissues

  2. SECTION 1 CELL ANATOMY

  3. CELLS 1600’s – Robert Hooke was first to name “cells” Trillions of cells in the human body Building blocks of the body 4 elements (C, O, H, N) make most of all cells

  4. CELLS certain elements are needed for specific function (Ca-clotting) 60% of a cell is water Interstitial fluid – constantly bathes cells; gases exchanged here

  5. CELLS VARY IN SIZE (micrometer to 3 feet) STRUCTURE REFLECTS FUNCTION VARIOUS SHAPES

  6. GENERALIZED CELL • ALL HAVE SOME BASIC PARTS: • NUCLEUS • CYTOPLASM • PLASMA MEMBRANE

  7. CELL ORGANIZATION NUCLEUS Control center of the cell Contains genetic material (DNA) DNA is the PLAN for building the whole body; necessary for cell reproduction

  8. NUCLEUS - STRUCTURES PG. 57 Nuclear membrane Nucleoplasm Nucleoli Chromatin Chromosomes

  9. PLASMA MEMBRANE PG. 58 Flexible, fragile, transparent barrier Separates the cell from the outside Semi-permeable

  10. CYTOPLASM • CELLULAR MATERIAL OUTSIDE THE NUCLEUS AND INSIDE THE PLASMA MEMBRANE • SITE OF MOST CELL ACTIVITIES • 3 MAJOR ELEMENTS: • CYTOSOL, ORGANELLES, INCLUSIONS

  11. CYTOPLASM CYTOSOL-SUSPENDS THE OTHER ELEMENTS ORGANELLES-SPECIFIC PARTS OF THE CELL THAT HAVE A JOB INCLUSIONS-NON-FUNCTIONING UNITS OF THE CELL

  12. ORGANELLES “LITTLE ORGANS”

  13. MITOCHONDRIA ENERGY SUPPLIERS ENERGY IN THE FORM OF ATP ATP SUPPLIES THE CELL WITH ENERGY “BUSY” CELLS (MUSCLE & LIVER) USE HUGE AMOUNTS OF ATP THUS HUNDREDS OF MITOCHONDRIA PAGE 61

  14. RIBOSOMES TINY, ROUND, DARK BODIES MADE OF PROTEIN SITE OF PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IN CELL SOME FLOAT-SOME ATTACH

  15. ROUGH E.R. SYSTEM OF FLUID FILLED TUBES “MINI” CIRCULATORY SYSTEM CARRIES SUBSTANCES (PROTEIN) FROM VARIOUS PARTS OF THE CELL STUDDED WITH RIBOSOMES (ROUGH)

  16. ROUGH E.R. CELL’S MEMBRANE FACTORY ABUNDANT IN CELLS THAT EXPORT PROTEIN (PANCREAS)

  17. SMOOTH E.R. PLAYS NO ROLE IN PROTEIN SYNTHESIS FUNCTION IN CHOLESTEROL SYNTHESIS & BREAKDOWN OF FAT ABUNDANT IN THE LIVER

  18. GOLGI APPARATUS STACK OF FLATTENED MEMBRANOUS SACS FOUND NEAR NUCLEUS MODIFY & PACKAGE PROTEINS (VIA R.E.R.) PAGE 61-62

  19. LYSOSOME BAGS CONTAINING DIGESTIVE ENZYMES DIGEST WORN OUT/UNUSABLE CELL PARTS

  20. PEROXISOME CONTAIN POWERFUL OXIDASE ENZYMES USE O2 TO DETOXIFY HARMFUL/POISONOUS SUBSTANCES THAT ENTER A CELL “DISARM” FREE RADICALS FREE RADICALS-UNSCRAMBLE PROTEINS

  21. CYTOSKELETON ACT AS THE CELL’S BONES AND MUSCLES FURNISHES A FRAMEWORK THAT DETERMINES CELL SHAPE, SUPPORTS OTHER ORGANELLES, PROVIDES MACHINERY FOR MOVEMENT MICROFILAMENTS & MICROTUBULES

  22. CENTRIOLES PAIRED; ROD SHAPED; LIE @ RIGHT ANGLES DIRECT FORMATION OF SPINDLES FOR CELL DIVISION Pg. 64

  23. CELL DIVERSITY • PAGE 64-65 • SHOW HOW CELL STRUCTURE IS RELATED TO CELL FUNCTION • CONNECT BODY PARTS • COVER & LINE BODY ORGANS • MOVE ORGANS & BODY PARTS • STORE NUTRIENTS • FIGHT DISEASE • GATHER INFORMATION & CONTROL FUNCTION • CELL REPRODUCTION

  24. CELL PHYSIOLOGY • MOST CELLS ARE ABLE TO: • METABOLIZE (USE NUTRIENTS) • DIGEST FOODS • DISPOSE OF WASTES • REPRODUCE • GROW • RESPOND TO A STIMULUS

  25. SECTION 2 CELL TRANSPORT

  26. CH. 3 - PHYSIOLOGY • ONLY DISCUSS: • MEMBRANE TRANSPORT • PROTEIN SYNTHESIS • CELL REPRODUCTION

  27. MEMBRANE TRANSPORT The fluid on either side of the plasma membrane is a SOLUTION def’n: A HOMOGENOUS MIXTURE OF 2 OR MORE COMPONENTS SOLVENT-the dissolving medium (usually water); substance in greater abundance SOLUTE-substance being dissolved

  28. MEMBRANE TRANSPORT • INTRACELLULAR FLUID • SOLUTION CONTAINING SMALL AMOUNTS OF GASES, NUTRIENTS, SALTS, DISSOLVED WATER (NUCLEOPLASM & CYTOSOL) • INTERSTITIAL FLUID • FLUID THAT CONSTANTLY BATHES THE EXTERIOR OF OUR CELLS

  29. MEMBRANE TRANSPORT SELECTIVELY PERMEABLE – A BARRIER THAT ALLOWS SOME SUBSTANCES TO PASS THROUGH WHILE EXCLUDING OTHERS PLASMA MEMBRANE is selectively permeable

  30. MEMBRANE TRANSPORT TRANSPORT OF SUBSTANCE THROUGHT THE PLASMA MEMBRANE CAN OCCUR 2 WAYS: PASSIVE TRANSPORT -SUBSTANCES MOVE ACROSS THE MEMBRANE WITHOUT ANY ENERGY INPUT FROM THE CELL ACTIVE TRANSPORT -CELL PROVIDES ENERGY (ATP) TO MOVE SUBSTANCES ACROSS THE MEMBRANE

  31. PASSIVE TRANSPORT (2) DIFFUSION FILTRATION DIFFUSION – MOLECULES SCATTER THEMSELVES THROUGH AVAILABLE SPACE FROM AREA OF HIGH CONCENTRATION TO LOW CONCENTRATION

  32. FACILITATATED DIFFUSION TYPE OF DIFFUSION A PROTEIN “CARRIER” IS NEEDED TO HELP IN TRANSPORTING MOLECULES (GLUCOSE) THROUGH THE PLASMA MEMBRANE PG. 67

  33. DIFFUSION OF WATER

  34. PASSIVE TRANSPORT (2) DIFFUSION FILTRATION OSMOSIS –DIFFUSION OF WATER

  35. PASSIVE TRANSPORT (2) DIFFUSION FILTRATION FILTRATION – WATER & SOLUTES ARE FORCED THROUGH A MEMBRANE BY FLUID (HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE) PUSHES FROM HIGHER TO LOWER CONCENTRATION EX: BLOOD, KIDNEYS TO REMOVE WASTE

  36. ACTIVE TRANSPORT (2) USE OF ATP BY THE CELL TO MOVE MATERIALS ACROSS THE MEMBRANE SOLUTE PUMPING BULK TRANSPORT

  37. ACTIVE – SOLUTE PUMPING REQUIRE PROTEIN CARRIERS SODIUM/POTASSIUM PUMP IN NERVE CELLS

  38. ACTIVE – BULK TRANSPORT • EXOCYTOSIS • MOVE SUBSTANCES OUT OF THE CELL • PACKAGED BY G.A. & MOVED OUT OF CELL • ENDOCYTOSIS • ENGULF EXTRACELLULAR SUBSTANCES BY ENCLOSING THEM IN A SAC AND CYTOPLASM FORMS AROUND THE SAC TO DRAW THE SUBSTANCE INTO THE CELL

  39. EXO VS. ENDOCYTOSIS

  40. ACTIVE – BULK TRANSPORT • ENDOCYTOSIS • PINOCYTOSIS – BRING IN WATER • PHAGOCYTOSIS – BRING IN FOOD

  41. SECTION 3 CELL DIVISION

  42. CELL CYCLE • SERIES OF CHANGES FROM FORMATION TO DIVISION • 2 MAJOR PERIODS: • INTERPHASE • CELL DIVISION

  43. INTERPHASE LONGER OF 2 PHASES VERY ACTIVE RESTING FROM DIVISION & PREPARING FOR THE NEXT

  44. MITOSIS RESULTS IN 2 IDENTICAL “DAUGHTER” NUCLEI PROPHASE METAPHSE ANAPHASE TELOPHASE CYTOKINESIS

  45. PROPHASE CHROMATIN COIL CHROMOSOMES VISIBLE CHROMATID CENTROMERE SPINDLE

  46. METAPHASE CHROMOSOMES CLUSTER ALIGN ON MIDLINE BETWEEN CENTRIOLES

  47. ANAPHASE CENTROMERES SPLIT CHROMOSOMES MOVE TO POLES CHROMOSOMES SPLIT

  48. TELOPHASE CHROMOSOMES UNCOIL & BECOME CHROMATIN SPINDLE DISAPPEARS NUCLEUS REFORMS

  49. CYTOKINESIS DIVISION OF THE CYTOPLASM CLEAVAGE FURROW APPEARS 2 DAUGHTER CELLS ARE FORMED