Day 119: The War to End War Baltimore Polytechnic Institute March 6, 2012 A.P. U.S. History Mr. Green
The War to End War Objectives: Students will: Explain what caused America to enter World War I. Describe how Wilsonian idealism turned the war into an ideological crusade for democracy that inspired public fervor and suppressed dissent. Discuss America’s mobilization for war and its reliance primarily on voluntary methods rather than government force. Explain the consequences of World War I for labor, women, and African Americans. Describe America’s participation in the War, and explain why its economic and political importance exceeded its military contribution to the Allied victory and German defeat. AP Focus With U.S.-German relations strained, what is left of the rapport erodes with the disclosure of the Zimmerman telegram in March 1917. In it, the German government promises that if Mexico agrees to an alliance with Germany, it will regain the territory it lost to the U.S. in the Mexican-American War. The following month, President Wilson asks and receives from Congress a declaration of war. Opposition to U.S. entry into the war is strong in the Midwest and Southwest; the Zimmerman telegram, however, infuriates residents of Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico.
Chapter Focus Chapter Themes Entering World War I in response to Germany’s unrestricted submarine warfare, Wilson turned America’s participation into a fervent ideological crusade for democracy that successfully stirred the public to a great voluntary war effort, but at some cost to traditional civil liberties. After America’s limited but important contribution to the Allied victory, a triumphant Wilson attempted to construct a peace based on his idealistic Fourteen Points. But European and senatorial opposition, and especially his own political errors, doomed American ratification of the Versailles Treaty and participation in the League of Nations.
Announcements Test Thursday, March 15, 2011 Chapters 30-32 Focus Questions-Chapter 30 Due Wednesday
War By Act of Germany January 22,1917-”peace without victory” January 31,1917-Germany announced unrestricted submarine warfare March 1, 1917-Zimmerman note 1st 2 weeks of March 1917-overt acts 4 unarmed U.S. merchant vessels April 2, 1917-Wilson asks for War April 6, 1917-America declares war
Wilsonian Idealism Enthroned “It is a fearful thing to lead this great peaceful people into war” Woodrow Wilson, in his war message How could the president arouse the American people to shoulder this unprecedented burden? “ make the world safe for democracy” Americans-either isolationists or crusaders Do you agree?
Wilson’s 14 Potent Points Hoped to keep Russia in the war Demoralize the enemy 1. Abolish secret treaties 2. Freedom of the seas 3. Free trade 4. Reduce arms 5. anti-imperialism
Creel Manipulates Minds Committee on Public Information George Creel 4-minute men posters movies songs Did his job so well that the world expected too much
Enforcing Loyalty and Stifling Dissent 8 million German-Americans Rumor-mongers Name changes liberty cabbage liberty steak Espionage Act of 1917 Sedition Act of 1918 Eugene V. Debs jailed Bill Haywood of the IWW jailed Schenck v. U.S. (1919) “clear and present danger”
The Nation’s Factories Go to War Nation ill-equipped at the beginning of war 100,000 man army-15th in the world at the time State control of the economy viewed with suspicion War Industries Board Bernard Baruch economic planning disbanded after the war used as a model during the Great Depression
Workers in Wartime “Work or Fight” powerful discouragement to go on strike National War Labor Board Taft in charge pressed employers to give raises/8hr day did not guarantee right to unionize AFL supported the war Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) did not support the war AFL reaped the rewards of loyalty increased real wages
Cont’d Wartime inflation doubled prices between 1914-1920 6,000 strikes in the war years 1919-steel strikes 250,000 men walked off the jobs 30,000 African-Americans brought in to break the strike and keep the mills running Race Riots erupted East St. Louis, MO Chicago 15 whites died 23 African-Americans
Suffering Until Suffrage Women went to the factories Some women were pacifists National American Woman Suffrage Association supported the war only way to earn a role in shaping the peace Women granted suffrage worldwide 1920-19th Amendment Sheppard-Towner Maternity Act of 1921 federally financed instruction
Homework Read Chapter 30 Prepare for 5 question quiz on Wednesday