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  1. MANAJEMEN UNSUR HARA PUPUK BAGI TANAH-TANAMAN ManajemenKesuburan Tanah SmnofpubOktober2013

  2. .KESUBURAN TANAH. What is soil fertility? “The  quality  of  a  soil  that  enables  it  to  provide  essential chemical  elements  in  quantities  and  proportions  for  the growth  of  specified  plants.”  (Brady  and Weil,  1999  ‐  The Nature and Properties of Soils)  Soil  fertility deals with  the nutrient status or ability of soil  to supply  nutrients  for  plant  growth  under  favourable environmental  conditions  such  as  light,  temperature  and physical conditions of soil Fertile  soil  contains  sufficient  nutrients  to  ensure  plant  growth  and  yield  and  is  able  to  maintain  appropriate  moisture and components in the soil.  • Sumber:….. 15/10/2012

  3. . MANAJEMEN KESUBURAN TANAH. Soil fertility management  in organic farming  is a  long term strategy aimed at:  (1) Reducing  the  loss of nutrients and  (2) Building soil fertility through the continuous nourishment of the soil.  The aim is to minimise the need to bring in external  inputs from outside the farm.  Soil fertility and its management require specific approaches  in organic production, including:  Using natural fertilisation methods Practices such as crop rotation and association Elimination of chemical fertilisers. • Sumber:….. 15/10/2012

  4. . Goals of a Sustainable Soil Fertility Management Program • To sustain high crop productivity and crop quality in food and fiber production: • Crop productivity, crop quality, and the success of a given operation • 2. To minimize risks to environmental quality and human health associated with agricultural production • Important steps in minimizing human health risks, and on and off-farm impacts • i. Avoid the use of all synthetically compounded materials; balance inputs of organic matter and mineral inputs to avoid exceeding crop needs • ii. Avoid creating nonpoint source pollution through surface runoff and leaching • iii. Prevent soil erosion and sedimentation of waterways • iv. Close nutrient cycles as much as possible within the field and farm • v. Close nutrient cycles at multiple scales: watershed, regional and national scales. • Sumber:….. 15/10/2012

  5. Sumber: • ….. 15/10/2012

  6. INMIntegrated Nutrient Management Diunsuh dari sumber: 15/10/2012

  7. What is Integrated NM? • Considering more than just yield-limiting factors when managing nutrients. • Simultaneous consideration of: • Factors affecting crop yield • Factors affecting crop quality • Economic factors • Environmental factors • “System” factors Diunsuh dari sumber: 15/10/2012

  8. The Goals of Nutrient Management are to… • Optimize plant production • Yield/quality • Profit • Conserve resources • Enhance soil quality and productivity Diunsuh dari sumber: 15/10/2012

  9. Why Integrated NM? • One cannot manage nutrients in isolation from other factors. Nutrients must be managed as a part of a cropping system because: • Other factors controlling plant growth will also affect nutrient demand and nutrient fate. Diunsuh dari sumber: 15/10/2012

  10. Crop-Related Factors • Growth rate (phenology) • Nutrient uptake rate • Salt tolerance • Heat tolerance • pH tolerance • Is the crop harvested, all or part? • Water consumptive use • Unique nutrient needs • Root system depth and distribution • Tissue test levels throughout growing season • Yield potential • Yield • Soil temp requirement • Insect infestation Diunsuh dari sumber: 15/10/2012

  11. FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG BERHUBUNGAN DENGAN TANAH • Chemical/Biological: • EC (salt) • SAR (sodium) • CEC • Antecedent plant-available nutrients • pH • OM content • CaCO3 content • Mineralizable N (SOM) • Disease history • Physical: • Texture • Water-holding capacity • Structure/restrictive layers • Soil Depth • Other • Soil management history • Soil variability Diunsuh dari sumber: 15/10/2012

  12. FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG BERHUBUNGAN DENGAN CUACA • Annual rainfall/relation to crop C.U. • Annual rainfall distribution • Climate: • Average air/soil temperatures during the year • Heat unit accumulations Diunsuh dari sumber: 15/10/2012

  13. FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG BERHUBUNGAN DENGAN IRIGASI • Water pH • Water ECw • Water SAR • Water SO42-, Cl-, HCO3-, CO32- , H3BO3, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ • Availability/cost of water • Crop leaching requirement • Irrigation system: type of system, capabilities wrt amount of water, frequency, uniformity Diunsuh dari sumber: 15/10/2012

  14. FAKTOR PUPUK • Equipment availability for fertilizer application • Irrigation system capabilities • Inorganic or organic fertilizer? • If organic, need the mineralization rate • Compatibility of fertilizers with soil/water • If CRF, need release rate • Fertilizer costs • Is the fertilizer solid, liquid, gas? Mobile or immobile? Acid or alkaline? Diunsuh dari sumber: 15/10/2012

  15. FAKTOR TANAMAN SSNM Site Specific Nutrient Management Diunsuh dari sumber: 15/10/2012

  16. FENOLOGI JAGUNG Source: Iowa State University Diunsuh dari sumber: 15/10/2012

  17. SERAPAN K TANAMAN JAGUNG Source: Iowa State University Diunsuh dari sumber: 15/10/2012

  18. EC and Crop Growth “Non-saline” “Saline” Diunsuh dari sumber: 15/10/2012

  19. NO3-N in Broccoli Petiole Sap Diunsuh dari sumber: 15/10/2012

  20. Respon Tanaman Barley thd pupuk N Diunsuh dari sumber: 15/10/2012

  21. Good Irrigation Management is Essential Source: Paul Brown, UA Diunsuh dari sumber: 15/10/2012

  22. Ideas for sustainable agricultural practices Long-term security of the global food supply requires a balance between increasing production and environmental sustainability. Both nutrient scarcities and surpluses alike can threaten this balance. Integrated Nutrient Management for Sustainable Crop Production examines the challenges of managing both organic and inorganic nutrient sources in agricultural systems where nutrients are deficient or in excess supply. Through a combination of theoretical and applied knowledge, this collection provides a practical understanding of how any type of production system can successfully adopt integrated nutrient management (INM). FAKTOR TANAH DiunDuh dari sumber:…..  15/10/2012

  23. Pedoman Uji Tanah untuk Cantaloupes If preplant soil NO3-N is: 0-5 ppm add 50-75 lb N/acre6-10 ppm add 50 lb N/acre>10 ppm add 0-50 lb N/acre If preplant soil P (HCO3 method) is: <5 ppm add 40-100 lb P2O5/acre5-15 ppm add 0-40 lb P2O5/acre >15 ppm add 0 lb P2O5/acre Diunsuh dari sumber: 15/10/2012

  24. FAKTOR IRIGATION / AIR/ CUACA Diunsuh dari sumber: ..... 15/10/2012

  25. Leaching Requirement for Pecans Timing and amount of leaching irrigation should be considered when managing fertilizer. Diunsuh dari sumber: 15/10/2012

  26. What are FBMPs? Fertilizer best management practices (FBMPs) are agricultural production techniques and practices developed through scientific researches and verified in farmers fields to maximize economic, social and environmental benefits. FBMP is aimed at managing the flow of nutrients in the course of producing affordable and healthy food in a sustainable manner that protect the environment and conserve natural resources at the same time profitable to producers. FAKTOR PUPUK Diunsuh dari sumber: 15/10/2012

  27. PUPUK ORGANIK Diunsuh dari sumber: 15/10/2012

  28. HARGA PUPUK Material $/ton $/#N $/#SGypsum 40 NA 0.11Sulfuric acid 80(soil) NA 0.12 Sulfur 250 NA 0.14Nitro-Sul 250 0.63 0.31Thio-Sul 190 0.79 0.36N-Phuric 190 0.63 0.59 UAN-32 185 0.29 NA Diunsuh dari sumber: 15/10/2012

  29. CONTOH: Integrated Nutrient Management for Cotton in Arizona Courtesy of J.C. Silvertooth Diunsuh dari sumber: 15/10/2012

  30. Key Tools for Managing N in Cotton • Use split applications • Follow crop development/N needs • % Fruit Retention (FR) • Height to Node Ratio (HNR) • Petiole NO3-N concentrations (PN) • Remember importance of avoiding excess N because of negative influence on reproductive performance of the plant. Diunsuh dari sumber: 15/10/2012

  31. Peak Bloom Pinhead Square Cut-out Number of Fresh Blooms Heat Units Accumulated After Planting Generalized Flower Curve Diunsuh dari sumber: 15/10/2012

  32. Possible N Management Approaches • Scheduled fertilization based upon either • stage of growth or calendar dates • Feedback approach (recommended) • crop condition (HNR, FR, PN) • Interpretation of feedback depends on stage of growth (HUAP) • reference to established baselines Diunsuh dari sumber: 15/10/2012

  33. Feedback Management Requirements • Useable / accessible measurement • Established baselines / guidelines • reference base • Common variety types (species) • Regionally specific baselines • Validation of recommendations Diunsuh dari sumber: 15/10/2012

  34. Optimal N Management • Provides for optimal N efficiencies • agronomically (crop response) • economically • environmentally • Improved fertilizer N efficiency • better fertilizer N recoveries • Reduced leaching losses Diunsuh dari sumber: 15/10/2012

  35. Steps for Optimal N Management • Establish a realistic yield goal • Account for soil and irrigation water available N • Split N applications • Follow crop conditions throughout the growing season and adjust N application accordingly Diunsuh dari sumber: 15/10/2012

  36. Optimal N Management (Step 1) • Use realistic yield goal • 60 lbs N/bale • Unruh, B.L. and J.C. Silvertooth. 1996 • Upland and Pima, Arizona • Mullins, G.L. and C.H. Burmester. 1990. • Upland, Alabama • sets upper limit for crop N needs • assumes high N fertilizer efficiency Diunsuh dari sumber: 15/10/2012

  37. Optimal N Management (Step 2) • Account for residual soil NH4-N and NO3-N • Each 1 ppm NH4-N or NO3-N in the top 12 inches of soil equals about 4 lb N/ac of available N • Account for irrigation water NO3- - N • 2.7 X ppm NO3- -N = lbs N/acre ft water • Subtract these values from total N needs Diunsuh dari sumber: 15/10/2012

  38. Optimal N Management (Step 3) • Split N fertilizer applications • follow crop condition (HNR, FR, petiole concentration) • window = PHS - PB (600 - 2000 HUAP) • Avoid preseason N applications if possible Diunsuh dari sumber: 15/10/2012

  39. N Application Window Pinhead Square Peak Bloom Split N Applications Cut-out Number of Fresh Blooms Heat Units Accumulated After Planting Diunsuh dari sumber: 15/10/2012

  40. Optimal N Management (Step 4) • Monitor Crop Condition: • Fruit Retention (FR) • Yield potential is generally related to fruit retention. Lower fruit retention, especially late in the season means lower yield potential. • Height to Node Ratio (HNR) • HNR is related to vegetative/reproductive balance. Higher-than-normal values mean excessively vegetative plants, so N application should be delayed. • Petiole NO3-N • A direct measure of plant N status Diunsuh dari sumber: 15/10/2012

  41. Optimal N Management Example • 3 bale yield goal X 60 lbs N/bale = 180 lbs N/acre (estimate of upper N fertilizer rate) • Subtract residual soil and irrigation water N • Ex. 15 ppm NO3- -N residual/top 12 in = 60 lbs N • Subtract water NO3-N • Ex. 5 ppm NO3-N x 4 ac ft/ac = 54 lbs N • 180 – 60 – 54 = 66 lbs N minimum • Add 20% to allow for inefficiency = 80 lbs N • Split in 3-4 applications (PHS-PB) Diunsuh dari sumber: 15/10/2012

  42. N Management Irrigated Cotton • First application at PHS • approximately 50 lbs N/acre • Irrigate/cultivate • Second application near FB • evaluate crop condition (FR, HNR, petioles) • Irrigate/cultivate • Third application before PB • evaluate crop condition (FR, HNR, petioles) Diunsuh dari sumber: 15/10/2012

  43. HNR Baselines Diunsuh dari sumber: 15/10/2012

  44. FR Baselines Diunsuh dari sumber: 15/10/2012

  45. Petiole NO3--N Concentration Baselines Diunsuh dari sumber: 15/10/2012

  46. Crop Monitoring - N Management Diunsuh dari sumber: 15/10/2012

  47. Crop Monitoring • Case 1 • High fruit load (high fruit retention) • HNR within thresholds • N input needed • If decline in petiole NO3--N is observed • provide application of N fertilizer Diunsuh dari sumber: 15/10/2012

  48. Crop Monitoring • Case 2 • Low fruit load (low fruit retention) • HNR is high (relative to guidelines) • hold back or reduce N fertilizer inputs • consider Pix application Diunsuh dari sumber: 15/10/2012

  49. Crop Monitoring • Case 3 • HNR is low (relative to guidelines) • maintain N fertilizer inputs • Pix is not needed • Crop is experiencing some form of stress • water, N, salinity, etc. • limiting growth • Identify and correct Diunsuh dari sumber: 15/10/2012

  50. Apakah Manajemen Kesuburan Tanah ? • Soil fertility management in organic farming is a long term strategy aimed at : • reducing the loss of nutrients and • building soil fertility through the continuous nourishment of the soil. • The aim is to minimise the need to bring in external inputs from outside the farm.