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Leadership Library

Leadership Library

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Leadership Library

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  1. Leadership Library This Power Point was created at Ursinus College by the 2008-2009 students of the Leadership Activities Class Table of Contents

  2. Table of Contents Theory Ice Breakers Partners Large Group Team Problem Solving Team Cooperation Team Trust Team Challenges Rock Wall

  3. Theory Goal of Education What is adventure education? Umbrella of Adventure Team Building How do we learn? Facilitation or Processing Debrief Ladder of Team Building Safety First Spotting Challenge Building Organizer Table of Contents

  4. Goal of Education • Develop Good Citizens • Respectful Competitors • Community Leaders • Good Character Traits • Cooperative Team Members Theory

  5. What is Adventure Education? The process that involves the use of adventurous activities that provide a group or individual with compelling tasks and objectives. • Stimulate and cope with fear • Rational decision making • Courage (to do or not to do something) • Develop Skill • Problem Solving • Develop Cooperation • Create Team Work • Develop Communication • Develop Self Esteem Theory

  6. Umbrella of Adventure • Team Challenging/Team Building • Initiatives • Low Ropes • High Ropes • Adventure Sports • Mountain Biking • Kayaking • Hiking • Rock Climbing • Canoeing • Skiing • Sailing • Skate Boarding • Outdoor Leadership • NOIS • Outward Bound Theory

  7. Team Building • Key Aspects of Team Building -Students chance to be supported and be supportive -Provides communication, cooperation, and practice -Provides an opportunity for all students to share their ideas -Gives students a chance to praise and encourage one another • Negative Aspects Overcome through Team Building -Put Downs -Negative Body Language -Sarcasm Theory

  8. How Do We Learn? We learn in many different ways, such as hearing, seeing, and watching others. From just hearing people, we learn about twelve percent of our total information. From just seeing, we learn about 20 percent and just watching others about thirty percent. Obviously these numbers will differ from person to person but these are the generally accepted numbers. From hearing, seeing, and watching others for the same activity is when we learn about forty percent of our information. These numbers for learning can be increased by a few different factors as well. If something is connected to a real life experience we learn about twenty two percent better, and if learning is converted to a challenge activity we learn eighty three percent better. After we learn the skill, if we teach it to others we will be able to retain the knowledge by about ninety one percent. Theory

  9. Facilitation or Processing • Facilitation is when we process an activity that is structured to encourage individuals to plan, reflect, describe, analyze, and communicate about experiences. • Processing can occur at any time • processing enhances the richness of the experience so it stands out • Principles of Experiential Learning • People don’t learn, grow, or change, without reflection on their experiences • There are six generations of facilitating • Letting the experience speak for itself • Speaking for the experience • Debriefing or funneling the experience • Directly frontloading the experience • Framing the experience • Indirectly frontloading the experience • -The two most often used in educational settings are debriefing, and frontloading. • -Debriefing is talking about the experience after you have completed it • -Frontloading is talking about the activity before doing it, so you can focus your energy on why you are doing the activity Theory

  10. Debrief • One of the most common Principles of Experiential Learning • Debriefing is talking about the experience after you have completed it Theory

  11. Ladder of Team Building Theory

  12. Safety First! • Need for physical support • Adapt activities for people with limitations • Point out potential for injury for each challenge • Safety in lifting-with legs not back • Teams should address safety issues before attempting a challenge Theory

  13. Spotting • GENERAL CONCERN FOR THE SAFETY OF ANOTHER PERSON • EXTEND A HAND TO ASSIST BALANCE OR GIVE SOME HELP • PROTECT PARTICIPANTS FROM INJURY • CUSHION THE FALL, NOT CATCH AND HOLD  • PROTECT HEAD AND NECK • SPOTTERS IN ATHLETIC POSITION Theory

  14. Challenge Building Organizer • Before: • Is it safe? • Does it present a physical or mental challenge? • Is there a risk or perceived risk involved? • Does it require all members of the challenged team to be involved or can it be solved by a few? • What equipment is needed? • Is there a storyline? • After: • How was the activity challenging? • How did the challenge elicit fun? • Was there a debrief? • What did the challenged team learn from the activity? • What did the challenge builders learn by developing the challenge? Theory

  15. Ice Breakers Alphabetical Line Up 1 Alphabetical Line Up 2 Birth Date Line Up Treasure Hunt Table of Contents

  16. Alphabetical Line Up 1 • Equipment: None • # of Participants: Entire Class • Description: Line up without talking by last name. • Rules: • No talking • What success looks like: The class should be lined up by last name in alphabetical order. Ice Breakers

  17. Alphabetical Line Up 2 • Equipment: None • # of Participants: Entire Class • Description: Line up without talking by first name. • Rules: • No talking • What success looks like: The class should be lined up by first name in alphabetical order. Ice Breakers

  18. Birth Date Line Up • Equipment: None • # of Participants: Entire Class • Description: Line up without talking in order of birth date. • Rules: • No talking • What success looks like: The class should be lined up in order of birth date (including the year). Ice Breakers

  19. Treasure Hunt • Equipment: Worksheet • # of Participants: Entire Class • Description: Fill out a worksheet by going around the room and asking everyone various questions that are on the worksheet. • Rules: • You can only ask each person 1 question • What success looks like: Completing the worksheet with a different student’s name in each blank. Ice Breakers

  20. Partners Thumb Wrestle All Up Partner Tag Partner Tag Squared Partner Relay Table of Contents

  21. Thumb Wrestle • Equipment: none • # of Participants: 2 at a time • Description: Students will find a partner and see how many times they can win at thumb wrestling within a certain amount of time (amount of time is for the teacher to determine). After a round or two with going against the same person students should be asked to switch partners. • Rules: Can only use thumb, may not use any other fingers or the other hand to help. • Success: Students work together to see how many total times the students can win. They are not competing, but working together to reach a high number. Partners

  22. All Up • Equipment: none • # of Participants: numbers vary • Description: • start with partners facing each other but not using their hands on the ground • now do partners back to back • try groups of four • move to groups of 8 • continue to move the number of students up until the whole class is involved • some force can be used to help each student stand up but communication can also be used for the students to stand up all at the same time. • Rules: Students may not use hands to help them get up. • Success: The students working together to make sure all of the students stand up at the same time to help the group stand up at once. Partners

  23. Partner Tag • Equipment: none • # of Participants: 2 for a team, large group for entire activity • Description: In partners, students travel around the gym, walking, jogging, running (however teacher tells them) trying to tag other partners. • Rules- Each group of partners must remain interlocked with one another. Partnered pairs or groups of 3 or more may be used. • Success: Communicate and work as a team within the group to successfully move as a single unit around the area to tag other groups. Partners

  24. Partner Tag Squared • Equipment: none • # of Participants: 4 for a team, large group for entire game • Description: Same game as partner tag just instead of two people connected now its four. Game is best played on a confined area such as a basketball court. Have half of the class is “it” while the other half tries not to be tagged. The instructor should tell the class whether students are aloud to run, walk jog, etc. • Rules: Students must stay connected to each other • Success: The students will have to work on communication with their team so they can successfully move as a single unit Partners

  25. Partner Relay • Equipment: none • # of Participants: 2 for a team, large group for competition • Description: Each student in the class finds a partner. Each pair of partners sits next to each other at half court, one on each side of the line. From the sitting position, the instructor says “go”. Then each partner gets up and sprints to opposite baselines on the court and back. Wherever the pair of partners meet on the court, is where they will then “Dosie Doe Dance” around one time and sprint back to the baseline. • Rules: Repeat 3 times and then upon finishing, the pair of partners are to sit down wherever they last met. • Success: A pair of partners has ran to opposite baselines, returned to “dosie doe” three times, and then sit where they meet. Partners

  26. Large Group Turnstiles Islands Don’t Touch Me Star Gate Table of Contents

  27. Turnstiles • Materials: large jump rope • # of Participants: large group • Description: The group must pick two people to turn the rope everyone else must jump. Everyone in the group must jump rope in as few turns as possible (including the people turning the rope) • Rules: Students turning the rope must also jump through • Success: All students will jump rope, turning the rope as few times as possible, aiming for one turn. Large Group

  28. Islands • Equipment: hula hoops (1 for every 4 people) • # of Participants: large group • Description: Everyone in the class must choose a hoop to have both feet inside when the teacher starts the activity. After the students move to different hoops, because they can not stay in the same hoop the students must move when the teacher says to, the teacher removes a hoop one at a time. Each time a hoop is removed it becomes harder and harder for the students to fit both feet inside the hoop. • Rules: Everyone’s feet must be inside the hoop at one time. In the beginning, students must move to a different hula hoop each time. • Success: The maximum number of students fit all of their feet into the minimum number of hula hoops. Large Group

  29. Don’t Touch Me • Equipment: Hula Hoop • Number of Participants: Any number of people is acceptable but a large group is preferred • Description: The objective of this game is to have the class circle up and have each student step in the middle of the hula hoop. They must end up on the opposite side of the circle that they started on. • Rules:-Hula hoop can be moved before the start of the game to whatever position that the students want -Students cannot touch each other while moving or stepping in the hoop -Students can move in any direction once the game starts -Game can be timed to encourage speedy resolution • What Success Looks Like:Once the game starts the students can move however they like but they all must touch the middle of the hoop. Our class succeeded by moving the circle in two large groups in the opposite direction. We all moved quickly and would end up on the opposite sides of the circle and this was the most effective method we used. Large Group

  30. Star Gate • Equipment: Hula Hoop • # of participants: About 10 • Description of how to do: All members of a group must hold hands, with a hula hoop in between two of the group members. All of the members must pass through the hula hoop without letting go of each other’s hands. The participants must also not touch the hula hoop, except for the people holding it. • Rules: -All team members must go through the hula hoop twice -Only the two participants holding the hula hoop can touch it -Nobody can let go of the hands of the people next to them • What success looks like: A successful group will be able to get all of their participants though the hoop by using team cooperation. In order to be successful, only one person can go through the hoop at a time. Large Group

  31. Team Problem Solving Stepping Stones Human Knots The Bomb Keep It Up Table of Contents

  32. Stepping Stones • Equipment: Carpet Squares • Number of Participants: Can use as many as you want but make sure that there are more participants than carpet squares • Description: Students must make their way across an open space like a basketball court, using carpet squares as stepping stones • Rules:-Students cannot touch the floor -Students must remain attached to the stones whenever they are placed on the ground or else they will be lost forever -If lost, the team must continue on without the carpet square -Carpet squares cannot be thrown • What Success Looks Like:The team must successfully move across the area, like the basketball court. Once a square is placed on the ground, a team member must have a body part on the square or it will be lost. In class it meant that more than one person was on one carpet square as the last square was passed to the front. Once the entire team was across the floor, the game would be over. Team Problem Solving

  33. Human Knots • Equipment: Rope or rags about 1-2 feet in length • Number of Participants: 12 or less • Directions: 1. Participants stand in a circle facing inward and hold rope with right hand. 2. Place right hand in center of circle. 3. With right hand, grab rope of another person. The person cannot be standing next to you nor can they be the same person who is holding your rope. 4. Without letting go of the ropes, untangle your group ending up in one complete circle. • Variations: 1. Holding hands rather than ropes. 2. Increasing or decreasing the number of participants. • Success: When all individuals are untangled and left in one complete circle. Team Problem Solving

  34. The Bomb • Equipment: Tennis Racket, Cup or Circular Object, Ball, Jump Rope, Scooter • Number of Participants: Any large group is appropriate • Description: This game is completed by having each group member on a team pass over and area like the basketball court, without touching the ground, while holding “The Bomb.” The bomb is made of a tennis racket, a cup or other circular object which is placed on top of the cup, and a ball, which would be the bomb, to place on the circular object • Rules:-Students cannot touch the bomb and cannot drop it while they are crossing -Students must use the scooter to transport themselves and the bomb across the area • What Success Looks Like:Our group assembled the bomb and held it in place by using the jump rope. WE would then push the student across while they held the bomb and this was repeated until all the students crossed. Team Problem Solving

  35. Keep It Up • Equipment: As many inflated balloons as there are people. • Number of Participants: 2+ (varies depending on activity) • Directions: For two people: 1. Holding right hands, keep the balloon in the air. 2. Holding left hands, keep the balloon in the air. 3. Holding both hands, keep the balloon in the air. For a group 1. Holding hands, keep the balloon in the air. • Variations: 1. Have duo or group do this while moving. 2. Set a goal for the number of seconds or minutes balloon must stay in the air. 3. Set a goal for the number of touches without touching the ground. 4. While moving, if balloon hits the ground have group return to the starting point. 5. Race to see which group can move the balloon across the gym the fastest without it hitting the ground. 6. Eliminate body parts that can touch the balloon (such as legs, torso, arms, etc.) 7. Endless possibilities. • Success: Depends on the activity. Overall, success is not letting the balloon hit the ground. Team Problem Solving

  36. Team Cooperation Slipped Disk Balloon Trolley Hoop to Hoop Flip Me the Bird Warp Speed Group Juggle Key Punch Table of Contents

  37. Slipped Disk • Equipment: One Frisbee • Number of Participants: 10+ • Directions: 1. Participants kneel on hands and knees facing inward in a circle. 2. One person starts with the Frisbee on their back. 3. Without touching the disk with your hands, move it around the circle on the backs of each participant ending up at the original starting point. 4. If the disk falls, you must start over from the beginning. • Success: When the disk has traveled around the entire circle without dropping and has returned to the back it started on. • Variations: 1. Put a time limit on the activity. 2. Eliminate other body parts from touching the Frisbee, such as arms, heads, etc. 3. Changing the consequences when the Frisbee is dropped (such as only moving the Frisbee back one or two people instead of starting over). Team Cooperation

  38. Balloon Trolley • Equipment: balloon for each person in the class • # of Participants: 6 (enough to create a team) • Description: Students must travel with balloons between them from one end of the gym to the other, or around the perimeter of the basketball court. • Rules: Students may not touch the balloons with their hands at any time. • Success: Students will travel to the other end of the gym and back, or around the perimeter of the basketball court with the balloon still in the air (between them). Team Cooperation

  39. Hoop to Hoop • Equipment: Several Hula Hoops • # of participants: Start with a few people in each group, and increase the number every round to make the exercise more challenging. • Description of how to do: The goal of each team is to fit all of their team members inside of a single hula hoop. • Rules: -Each person must have at least one foot in the hula hoop. -Every round more people are added • What success looks like: A successful team will work together to find out the easiest way to get at least one foot of each member in the hula hoop. This may involve getting close to strangers. It may also involve coming up with strategies where some people are standing and others are sitting. Team Cooperation

  40. Flip Me the Bird • Equipment: pinnies, rubber chickens • # of Participants: enough to make 3 large teams • Description: One team is being chased and must pass the rubber chicken in order to not be tug. The other 2 teams are trying to tag members that are not holding the chicken. • Rules: Player can only not be tug if they are holding the chicken. Once a player is tug, they must report to the teacher before beginning to play again. • Success: The team with the least number of total tags has successfully worked together to pass the chicken to people in need of not being tug. Team Cooperation

  41. Warp Speed • Equipment: A ball •  # of participants: 9-11 • Description of how to: The objective of the game is to toss a ball around your group of team members as fast as possible. •  Rules: The ball has to touch every team member’s hand as fast as possible. •  What success looks like: Our team came up with a good strategy to complete this task we simply put all out hands on tops of each other and placed the ball on the top of the hand pile. We then each pulled our hands out from under the ball when it came in contact with our skin, this helped us complete the task successfully at “warp speed”. Team Cooperation

  42. Group Juggle • Equipment: 1 bucket and a bag of balls. •  # of participants: 9 to 11 • Description of how to: Each group is given several baseball sized balls which they must then form a throwing pattern for. One person starts with one ball and throws in to the second person in the chain, who then continues to pass it along, however as soon as the ball leaves the first person, he/she then begins with another ball, consecutively adding more into the tossing chain until all the balls are being thrown. •  Rules: You can’t toss a ball to the person next to you, you can’t hold balls they need to me moving. •  What success looks like: this task was difficult but we were able to do it. There were 11 of us and 12 balls so we needed to work fast and as a team to complete the activity. Team Cooperation

  43. Key Punch • Equipment: Numbered Dots, Tape • # of participants: 11 • Description of how to: touch each dot in sequenced order from 1-30. • Rules: only one person inside the tape box at one moment in time;other team members can help by touching dots from outside the tape box; there is a 30 second time limit • What success looks like: The objective of this game is to see how quickly and proficiently your team can work together and communicate to finish the activity. Our team worked very well together and came up with a strategy where the person closest to the next sequential number would touch it. This method worked and our team was very happy with our success. Team Cooperation

  44. Team Trust Cars Robots Mystery Walk The Wave Wind in the Willow Cookie Machine Izzy Dizzy Trust Fall Table of Contents

  45. Cars • Equipment: Blind Folds • # of participants: 2 • How to: First off, take the group of twp people and made them stand one behind the other. The person in the back is the driver of the car. Touch all sides of the gym floor, also touching both basketball nets. After both partners are drivers of the car, then the blindfold will be introduced, thus developing trust in each other. • Rules: Students are in pairs and one is blindfolded while the other person holds on to the shoulders of this student. The student behind the blindfolded student controls the “car”. The student behind controls the speed and pace at which the students move throughout the gym. The key to this activity is trust and the students can either be sprinting around the gym or walking, the pace is up to them. • What success looks like: Students will learn to trust the other student as they can not see but still have to be guided around the gym. This helps with cooperation and teamwork to make sure teammates get along well and help one another. Team Trust

  46. Robots • Equipment: Blind Folds • # of participants: 2 • How to: First off, take the group of twp people and made them stand one behind the other. The “robot” is the person who is blindfolded and the person not blind folded is to direct the “robot” to each wall around the gym. This consists of a square. Safety is key because running into another “robot” will hurt. • Rules: After every wall touch, the “robot” needs to be directed around the logo at half court. This game can be envisioned as driving a car and the person blindfolded is the car. After they complete this, increasing the degree of difficulty is when it gets tough. The partners must do the same thing, only this time, they must not talk or touch each other to direct. Using noises is an important way around this part. • What success looks like: Students will learn to trust the other student as they can not see but still have to be guided around the gym. This helps with cooperation and teamwork to make sure teammates get along well and help one another. The key to this activity is trust and communication with another partner. There are different degrees of difficulty, which involved blindness, non contact, or no noise making. Team Trust

  47. Mystery Walk • Equipment: Blind Folds, open space, any obstacles to throw in the walk • # of participants: 10-15 • How to: The group leader must successfully guide his/her team through a course consisting of various obstacles. All teammates must remain blind folded. • Rules: All teammates except one (the group leader) are blind folded, and need to be guided through the obstacle course by their group leader. • What success looks like: Students will learn to trust the other student as they can not see but still have to be guided. This helps with cooperation and teamwork to make sure teammates get along well and help one another while blindfolded. The key to this activity is trust and communication with your team. Team Trust

  48. The Wave • Equipment: none • # of Participants: large group • Description: Students start in 2 lines, shoulder to shoulder, one line facing the other. Students in one of the lines take a step to the left so they are no longer directly face to face with someone, but between people. Students then raise arms so that every other arm belongs to a different student. This should resemble a zipper. The student who volunteered to go stands at the end of the line, between the two rows of students. When the volunteer is ready to start, he or she says, “ready to (walk, jog, or run).” The rest of the team (everyone in the two lines) replies, “ready to spot” The volunteer says, “Walking, jogging, or running” (which ever they say in the first place). The rest of the team replies, “(walk, jog, run) away.” The volunteer then goes between the lines, walking, running, or jogging, whichever he or she said they were doing. • Rules: The line, or zipper, must open and then close for the volunteer. (Arms must be raised so he can move through without being hit, and then lowered once he is through and past that person) • Success: The student running through the line makes it to the other end without being hit by anyone on either side of the line. Team Trust

  49. Wind in the Willow • Equipment: none • # of Participants: large group (11) • Description: Students stand in a circle, almost touching shoulders. One student stands in the center. Students in the circle remain in ready position. After the dialogue listed under the rules is recited, the student in the center then falls back, with a stiff body, and arms crossed in front of him or her (Once trust is gained, may close eyes as well).Students around the circle continue to push the center student back up so that he or she does not fall. • Rules: • Student in the center says, “Ready to fall.” • Students in circle respond, “Ready to spot.” • Student in the center says, “Falling.” • Students in the circle respond, “Fall away.” • Success: The student in the center of the circle is pushed around and does not fall. Greater success can be found as the student closes his or her eyes, or the circle takes a step back. Team Trust

  50. Cookie Machine • Equipment: none • # of Participants: Large Group • Description: Students line up in two lines facing each other. Each line is shoulder to shoulder. • Students in one line then take a step to their left so they are no longer face to face, but between people in the line across from them. Students then raise their arms so every other arm belongs to a different student. One volunteer starts at the end of the line with their back to the lines. This student is the “cookie.” • Rules: Students in the lines must figure out a way to transport the cookie to the other end of the line, without dropping the “cookie.” Once reaching the end of the “conveyer belt” the students must place the “cookie” student on their feet. Students may need to lock arms. • Success: Student who is the “cookie” is passed to the other end of the “conveyer belt” and placed on their feet, without being dropped. Team Trust