Franchise Building Rhythma Kapoor Week 5
Plan for Today • Franchise Building • Assignment 2 • Group work 2 • Mid term paper
Main Features of Transmedia Universes • Points of Entry • Trigger Points • Teasers • Rabbit Hole • Pivot Point • Distributed Narrative • CTAs • The stop and go effect • The Domino Effect • The Spin-off Effect
Transmedia Content Production Franchise Productions Major productions + Legacy of cross-media (including official website) Alternated Reality Publishing Billing & Monetization Short-story Media Constellation Use daily-used publishing asset to mimic reality Use snacking-media channels Informative Informative Participative Participative Federate & value the community Community extensions Personalization Tuning medias + individual story paths Call2Act & gain the right to access stories Interactive services
Disney & The History of Franchises • The most significant shift toward horizontal integration and media franchising came in the 1930s, when • Walt Disney introduced a new business model that he described as total merchandising. • Under this model, all Disney products served dual purposes: branded merchandise, television shows, animated movies, and amusement park rides all simultaneously functioned as entertainment and as advertisements for every other Disney product. • Disney’s characters were the first characters designed to serve as entertainment “brands.”
Problems With Current Franchises • Franchise products are governed too much by economic logic and not enough by artistic vision. • The current licensing system typically generates works that are redundant (allowing no new character background or plot development), watered down (asking the new media to slavishly duplicate experiences better achieved through the old), or riddled with sloppy contradictions (failing to respect the core consistency audiences expect within a franchise).
Film, music, video and computer games, Websites, television documentaries,books and product licensing are elaborately cross-referenced in the contemporaryentertainment industry through the usual suspects of magazines, newspapers,entertainment newsprogrammes, industry-related consumer and trade magazinesand electronic journals. The audience “learns” about a product through itsassociations in other cultural forms. (P.David Marshall)
Horizontal & Vertical Integration • Retail/Service model of Franchising follows vertical integration: allowing corporations to have control of product distribution and marketing to farm out their production and/or sales operations. • Transmedia franchises: Rather than acquire vertical control of a single product, the franchise expands the range of product offerings across markets: from an Iron Man comic to Iron Man television series, toys, and video games, etc.. • Instead of multiplying the number of outlets that deliver product to consumers, Transmedia franchises multiply the number of products those outlets deliver.
TM Franchises • The TM franchise is more about expanded production of content than it is expanded delivery of product. • As a result, that content is therefore more aptly understood as serially produced than mass produced, in that each franchise outlet works in relation to one another.
Transmedia Models e.g. The Matrix, Harry Potter e.g. Mad Men, The Office
TransmediaExperience ,Language‘ How do I tell a Story within the world? Text Voice Acting Game Video Architecture Pictures How much audience participation is allowed? LevelofAudienceParticipation How do new plattforms make new stories possible? DistributionTechnologies& Plattforms Live Consumption Participant al vic Digites Low High De Linear Narrative Co Creating Branching tree-like Narrative Sandbox Game Alternate Reality Game Virtual World Whitch plattforms suit the story best? How can stories be connected? SocialPlattforms quadra ated ourrel
Seven Principles of Franchise-Building • Spreadability vs. Drillability • Continuity vs. Multiplicity • Immmersion vs. Extractibility • World Building • Seriality • Subjectivity • Performance
Spreadability vs. Drillability • Spreadability: the capacity of the public to engage actively in the circulation of media content through social networks and in the process expand its economic value and cultural worth. • Drillabilty: A mode of forensic fandom that encourages viewers to dig deeper, probing beneath the surface to understand the complexity of a story and its telling. Such programs create magnets for engagement, drawing viewers into the storyworlds and urging them to drill down to discover more...
Spreadability vs. Drillability • Spreadable media encourages horizontal ripples, accumulating eyeballs without necessarily encouraging more long-term engagement. • Drillable media typically engage far fewer people, but occupy more of their time and energies in a vertical descent into a text's complexities."
Continuity vs. Multiplicity • TM franchises seek to construct a very strong sense of "continuity" which contributes to our appreciation of the "coherence" and "plausibility" of their fictional worlds. • Multiplicity allows the possibility of alternative versions of the characters or parallel universe versions of the stories - seeing the characters and events from fresh perspectives, and to sort out not only how the pieces fit together but also which version of the story any given work fits within.
Continuity vs. Multiplicity • The concept of multiplicity paves the way for us to think about fan fiction and other forms of grassroots expression as part of the same transmedia logic - unauthorized extensions of the "mother ship" which may nevertheless enhance fan engagement and expand our understanding of the original.
Immersion vs. Extractability In immersion, the consumer enters into the world of the story (e.g. theme parks), In extractability, the fan takes aspects of the story away with them as resources they deploy in the spaces of their everyday life (e.g. items from the gift shop).
IMAGECAPTURE http://vimeo.com/9413061 DRIVEMODE 3)ImmersionxExtractability http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kWB8hKLa6Pk
Seriality Transmedia storytelling takes the notion of breaking up a narrative arc into multiple discrete chunks or installments within a single medium and instead spreads those disparate ideas or story chunks across multiple media systems.
Subjectivity Transmedia extensions often explore the central narrative through new eyes; such as secondary characters or third parties. This diversity of perspective often leads fans to more greatly consider who is speaking and who they are speaking for.
Worldbuilding Transmedia extensions, often not central to the core narrative, that give a richer depiction of the world in which the narrative plays out. Franchises can exploit both real-world and digital experiences. These extensions often lead to fan behaviors of capturing and cataloging the many disparate elements.
Astory... Acharacter... Aworld. 6)Worldbuilding
Performance The ability of transmedia extensions to lead to fan produced performances that can become part of the transmedia narrative itself. Some performances are invited by the creator while others are not; fans actively search for sites of potential performance.
Case Study- Heroes • 2008’s Emmy Award winner for Outstanding Interactive Media Programming • Websites, MySpace pages, novels, an elaborate text message-based game, online competitions to create a new heroand an online graphic novel. Heroes 360 Evolution prime time Emmy • Hana Gitelman an exclusive online character - she contacted users via text and email daily • Encouraged them to hack into a website PrimatechPaper to find clues • Two months from Jan 2007 Heroes 360 experience had more than 48 million page views and 27 million video downloads http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_My6prvbQgA
Case Study: Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles Screen shot from 1987 television series Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles Image of 1990 movie poster for Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles Image of 1989 computer game released on Nintendo for Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles
Conspiracy for Good • Half a million CFG games and apps downloaded from Nokia • Collaboration with Nokia, Pearson Education & Room to Read • Over 4,000 dedicated players joining the global movement. • Real charities woven into the main narrative • “Social Benefit Storytelling” • Result in 50 scholarships being provided for young women in Africa • Five libraries will be stocked with more than 10,000 donated books http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aFPjBqpP-0Q http://www.conspiracyforgood.com/
Group Work-Tools Find THREE interactive storytelling toolsthat help enhance interactivity and audience building. Some examples: • Nakshart • Cowbird • Storybird • Xtranormal • google search stories • Jovoto • Dipity • Ning • thinglink
Weekly Assignment 2: World building(Pair work) • Critically analyze THREE interactive projects on the National Film Board of Canada’s website. • Your analysis should include the following: • Short description of each project. • What are the elements of world building in the projects?What are some specific unique aspects/components of each project?What are the strengths & weaknesses of each project? • What are some narrative elements found in each? (e.g. characterization, collaboration, access, shared mood and atmosphere etc.) • How do you rate them in terms of success/failure? Why? • Minimum 500 words, excl. references. • Refer to lecture & readings in your analysis.
Mid-term Paper • Critically examine a commercially produced (comic, website, game, mobisode, amusement park attraction, etc.) or a fan-made media extension (fan fiction, fan-movie, video, etc.) of a TM franchise and compare findings. • The paper will be evaluated on its demonstrated grasp of core concepts from the class, its original research, and its analysis of how the artifact relates to specific trends impacting the entertainment & advertising industry. Where possible, link your analysis to the course materials, including readings or lecture notes etc. • You must get your TM extensions approved by me beforehand.