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International Trademark Protection

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  1. International Trademark Protection William Fisher June 25, 2004 Many of the slides in this presentation were prepared by the Technical Cooperation Division of the Office of Harmonization in the Internal Market, Alicante, Spain, October 29, 1998

  2. Internationalization of Trademark Protection: Four Axes (1) Harmonization of the laws of separate jurisdictions (2) Facilitation of Filings and Management in other countries (3) Expanding coverage of regional trademarks (4) Expansion of trademark entitlements Terminus: single, uniform, world-wide, highly protective trademark system

  3. Vehicles of International Trademark Protection • Paris Convention (1883, 1900, 1911, 1925, 1934, 1958, 1967) • Madrid Agreement (1890, 1967) • Madrid Protocol (1989) • Trademark Law Treaty (1996) • TRIPS • Regional Trademark Systems • Community Trademarks (European Union) • MERCOSUR (Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay) • Andean Pact (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela) • APEC (Asia-Pacific) • ARPIO & OAPI (Africa)

  4. Vehicles of International Trademark Protection • Paris Convention (1883, 1900, 1911, 1925, 1934, 1958, 1967) • Madrid Agreement (1890, 1967) • Madrid Protocol (1989) • Trademark Law Treaty (1996) • TRIPS • Regional Trademark Systems • Community Trademarks (European Union) • MERCOSUR (Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay) • Andean Pact (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela) • APEC (Asia-Pacific) • ARPIO & OAPI (Africa)

  5. Paris Convention • No discrimination against nationals of other countries -- 2 • First filing date in a member country gives applicant priority in all other countries, provided filings are made within 6 months -- 4 • Marks considered “well-known” in any member country protected against use on similar goods in that country -- 6bis • Protection of foreign nationals against “unfair competition” -- 10bis

  6. Vehicles of International Trademark Protection • Paris Convention (1883, 1900, 1911, 1925, 1934, 1958, 1967) • Madrid Agreement (1890, 1967) • Madrid Protocol (1989) • Trademark Law Treaty (1996) • TRIPS • Regional Trademark Systems • Community Trademarks (European Union) • MERCOSUR (Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay) • Andean Pact (Bolivia, Colombia, Peru, Venezuela) • APEC (Asia-Pacific) • ARPIO & OAPI (Africa)

  7. Vehicles of International Trademark Protection • Paris Convention (1883, 1900, 1911, 1925, 1934, 1958, 1967) • Madrid Agreement (1890, 1967) • Madrid Protocol (1989) • Trademark Law Treaty (1996) • TRIPS • Regional Trademark Systems • Community Trademarks (European Union) • MERCOSUR (Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay) • Andean Pact (Bolivia, Colombia, Peru, Venezuela) • APEC (Asia-Pacific) • ARPIO & OAPI (Africa)

  8. Madrid Agreement • 30 Countries (not USA) • Owner of a “basic registration” may file international TM application in home office • if int’l application is filed within 6 months of basic registration, get date of priority • Application forwarded to WIPO, which: • issues international registration • publishes in Les Marques Internationales • forwards application to designated member countries • National offices examine application for conformity with national laws • if no action within 1 year, deemed registered • “Central Attack” • French

  9. Madrid Protocol • 70 countries (USA joined on 11/2/2003) • After filing domestic application, applicant may file international TM application in home office • if int’l application is filed within 6 months of basic application, get date of priority • Application forwarded to WIPO, which: • issues international registration • publishes in Les Marques Internationales • forwards application to designated member countries • National offices examine application for conformity with national laws • if no action within 1 year, deemed registered • No “Central Attack” • French or English http://www.wipo.org/madrid/en/legal_texts/madrid_protocol.htm

  10. Vehicles of International Trademark Protection • Paris Convention (1883, 1900, 1911, 1925, 1934, 1958, 1967) • Madrid Agreement (1890, 1967) • Madrid Protocol (1989) • Trademark Law Treaty (1996) • TRIPS • Regional Trademark Systems • Community Trademarks (European Union) • MERCOSUR (Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay) • Andean Pact (Bolivia, Colombia, Peru, Venezuela) • APEC (Asia-Pacific) • ARPIO & OAPI (Africa)

  11. Vehicles of International Trademark Protection • Paris Convention (1883, 1900, 1911, 1925, 1934, 1958, 1967) • Madrid Agreement (1890, 1967) • Madrid Protocol (1989) • Trademark Law Treaty (1996) • TRIPS • Regional Trademark Systems • Community Trademarks (European Union) • MERCOSUR (Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay) • Andean Pact (Bolivia, Colombia, Peru, Venezuela) • APEC (Asia-Pacific) • ARPIO & OAPI (Africa)

  12. Trademark Law Treaty • Procedural simplification and harmonization • 27 countries, including US (as of 2/26/2002) • Standard forms for applications, powers of attorney, etc. • Countries may require only: • name and address, • information concerning the mark • goods and services the mark pertains to, • the mark's classification, • declaration of the intention to use the mark. • 10-year initial term and renewal terms http://www.wipo.int/treaties/ip/tlt/index.html

  13. Vehicles of International Trademark Protection • Paris Convention (1883, 1900, 1911, 1925, 1934, 1958, 1967) • Madrid Agreement (1890, 1967) • Madrid Protocol (1989) • Trademark Law Treaty (1996) • TRIPS • Regional Trademark Systems • Community Trademarks (European Union) • MERCOSUR (Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay) • Andean Pact (Bolivia, Colombia, Peru, Venezuela) • APEC (Asia-Pacific) • ARPIO & OAPI (Africa)

  14. Vehicles of International Trademark Protection • Paris Convention (1883, 1900, 1911, 1925, 1934, 1958, 1967) • Madrid Agreement (1890, 1967) • Madrid Protocol (1989) • Trademark Law Treaty (1996) • TRIPS (1994) • Regional Trademark Systems • Community Trademarks (European Union) • MERCOSUR (Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay) • Andean Pact (Bolivia, Colombia, Peru, Venezuela) • APEC (Asia-Pacific) • ARPIO & OAPI (Africa)

  15. TRIPS Harmonization • National Treatment and MFN • Service marks must be protected -- 15 • Geographical indications must be protected (especially for wine and spirits) -- 22 & 23 • Mandatory Procedures for Publication, Opposition, and Cancellation -- 15 • Expansive protection for well-known marks -- 16 • 7-year minimum term -- 18 • Cancellation for non-use only after 3 years; longer if owner has legitimate excuse -- 19. • No compulsory licensing -- 21 • No “special requirements” encumbering use -- 21 • Preliminary relief must be available

  16. Bacardi Case • Pre-1959: Arechabalas family owns Cuban TM in Havana Club • 1959: Cuban government confiscates assets of Arechabalas family • Arechabalas let Cuban TM registration lapse • Cuban company registers Havana Club, then enters into joint venture with Pernod Ricard (French); HCH sells rum under that label in 80 countries • 1997: Bacardi (Bermuda company) buys rights to “Havana Club” from Arechabalas family • HCH seeks US registration for “Havana Club” • 1998, Congress adopts “Section 211,” forbidding U.S. courts to recognize or enforce TM rights used in connection with a confiscated business, unless the confiscado consents; limited to Cuban confiscados; • HCH unable to press its claims in U.S courts • Castro threatens to begin local, unauthorized production of Coca-Cola • EU initiates WTO dispute settlement

  17. Bacardi Case • Pre-1959: Arechabalas family owns Cuban TM in Havana Club • 1959: Cuban government confiscates assets of Arechabalas family • Arechabalas let Cuban TM registration lapse • Cuban company registers Havana Club, then enters into joint venture with Pernod Ricard (French); HCH sells rum under that label in 80 countries • 1997: Bacardi (Bermuda company) buys rights to “Havana Club” from Arechabalas family • HCH seeks US registration for “Havana Club” • 1998, Congress adopts “Section 211,” forbidding U.S. courts to recognize or enforce TM rights used in connection with a confiscated business, unless the confiscado consents; limited to Cuban confiscados; • HCH unable to press its claims in U.S courts • Castro threatens to begin local, unauthorized production of Coca-Cola • EU initiates WTO dispute settlement

  18. Bacardi Case • Final Ruling of WTO appellate body (January 2002): • Trade names are covered by TRIPS • Each country had substantial latitude in regulating conditions for registration of marks • Thus US could refuse to register confiscated marks • But non-discrimination principles (National Treatment and MFN) forbid special treatment for nationals of a particular foreign country

  19. Vehicles of International Trademark Protection • Paris Convention (1883, 1900, 1911, 1925, 1934, 1958, 1967) • Madrid Agreement (1890, 1967) • Madrid Protocol (1989) • Trademark Law Treaty (1996) • TRIPS • Regional Trademark Systems • Community Trademarks (European Union) • MERCOSUR (Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay) • Andean Pact (Bolivia, Colombia, Peru, Venezuela) • APEC (Asia-Pacific) • ARPIO & OAPI (Africa)

  20. Vehicles of International Trademark Protection • Paris Convention (1883, 1900, 1911, 1925, 1934, 1958, 1967) • Madrid Agreement (1890, 1967) • Madrid Protocol (1989) • Trademark Law Treaty (1996) • TRIPS • Regional Trademark Systems • Community Trademarks (European Union) • MERCOSUR (Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay) • Andean Pact (Bolivia, Colombia, Peru, Venezuela) • APEC (Asia-Pacific) • ARPIO & OAPI (Africa)

  21. Community Trademark • Coexists with national TM systems • Substantive Harmonization • Open System (contrast Madrid Protocol) • Administrative hierarchy: • OHIM • OHIM Boards of Appeals • European Court of Justice • “Absolute” Grounds for Nonregistration • indistinctive, descriptive, functional, deceptive, flags, etc. • Designated “Community TM Courts” in each country • Cancellation for nonuse in Europe for 5 years

  22. Community Trademark • Coexists with national TM systems • Substantive Harmonization • Open System (contrast Madrid Protocol) • Administrative hierarchy: • OHIM • OHIM Boards of Appeals • European Court of Justice • “Absolute” Grounds for Nonregistration • indistinctive, descriptive, functional, deceptive, flags, etc. • Designated “Community TM Courts” in each country • Cancellation for nonuse in Europe for 5 years

  23. Directive 89/104:Substantive Harmonization 1) definition of what can be registered as a trademark; 2) rights conferred by a trademark; 3) conditions on use of a trademark, especially, cancellation for lack of use; 4) exhaustion of the rights; 5) grounds for refusal, invalidation, or revocation of a trademark

  24. FI SE DK IE GB DE BX FR AT IT ES PT GR National Trademark Systems

  25. EM TM

  26. Three Alternative Routes

  27. Three Alternative Routes national offices CENTRAL INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY OFFICES: NATIONAL TRADE MARKS

  28. Three Alternative Routes national offices CENTRAL INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY OFFICES: NATIONAL TRADE MARKS WIPO: REGISTRATION OF A INTERNATIONAL TRADE MARKS

  29. Three Alternative Routes national offices CENTRAL INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY OFFICES: NATIONAL TRADE MARKS WIPO: REGISTRATION OF A INTERNATIONAL TRADE MARKS OHIM: REGISTRATION OF A COMMUNITY TRADE MARKS OHIM ALICANTE

  30. ES: National trade mark as from 12.6.1980 IT: National trade mark as from 15.11.1981 DE: National trade mark as from 20.4.1985 GR: National trade mark as from 02.7.1996 SENIORITY NATIONAL TRADE MARKS

  31. ES: National trade mark as from 12.6.1980 IT: National trade mark as from 15.11.1981 DE: National trade mark as from 20.4.1985 GR: National trade mark as from 02.7.1996 SENIORITY NATIONAL TRADE MARKS COMMUNITY TRADE MARK COMMUNITY TRADE MARK as from 10.7.1997

  32. ES: National trade mark as from 12.6.1980 IT: National trade mark as from 15.11.1981 DE: National trade mark as from 20.4.1985 GR: National trade mark as from 02.7.1996 SENIORITY NATIONAL TRADE MARKS COMMUNITY TRADE MARK COMMUNITY TRADE MARK as from 10.7.1997

  33. by mail or courier service personal delivery by fax FILING OF A COMMUNITY TRADE MARK APPLICATION FOR A COMMUNITY TRADE MARK ON PAPER ETMAF OHIM NATIONAL OFFICES

  34. LANGUAGES the European Union the OHIM • English • French • German • Italian • Spanish • Danish • Dutch • English • Finnish • French • German • Greek • Italian • Portuguese • Spanish • Swedish

  35. EXAMINATION APPLICATION EUROMARC Conditions of filing FORMAL EXAMINATION Conditions relating to the entitlement of the proprietor Examination as to formalities National Offices ES, AT, BX, DK, FI, GB, GR, IE, PT, SE SEARCH REPORTS ABSOLUTE GROUNDS Examination as to absolute grounds of refusal PUBLICATION OF APPLICATION

  36. PUBLICATION NO OPPOSITION OPPOSITION DECISION ON OPPOSITION REFUSAL in whole or in part REGISTRATION OPPOSITION PROCEEDINGS • Earlier TM applications or registrations in Member States • Earlier international registrations with effect in at least one of the countries of the EU • Or, earlier CTMs or CTMAs

  37. TYPES OF COMMUNITY TRADE MARKS • Trade marks for goods or services • Collective trade marks

  38. RIGHTS CONFERRED BY A COMMUNITY TRADE MARK • of exclusive use of the trade mark; • to prevent the reproduction or imitation of a trade mark; • to transfer a trade mark or to grant licenses for some or all of the goods or services to which the trade mark is registered, in part or the whole of the Community; • to oppose the registration of similar Community or national trade marks which could cause confusion to the consumer.

  39. Vehicles of International Trademark Protection • Paris Convention (1883, 1900, 1911, 1925, 1934, 1958, 1967) • Madrid Agreement (1890, 1967) • Madrid Protocol (1989) • Trademark Law Treaty (1996) • TRIPS • Regional Trademark Systems • Community Trademarks (European Union) • MERCOSUR (Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay) • Andean Pact (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela) • APEC (Asia-Pacific) • ARPIO & OAPI (Africa)

  40. OFFICE FOR HARMONIZATION IN THE INTERNAL MARKET STATISTICS Technical Cooperation Division

  41. COMMUNITY TRADE MARK APPLICATIONS BREAKDOWN BY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN – 1997 (MORE THAN 1,000 APPLICATIONS) total number of applications: 93,036 Technical Cooperation Division

  42. Total Registrations, by Country, 1997-2001 EU

  43. COMMUNITY TRADE MARK APPLICATIONS BREAKDOWN BY FIRST LANGUAGE OF APPLICATION Technical Cooperation Division

  44. COMMUNITY TRADE MARK APPLICATIONS BREAKDOWN BY SECOND LANGUAGE OF APPLICATION Technical Cooperation Division

  45. APPLICATION BY NUMBER OF CLASSES Technical Cooperation Division

  46. APPLICATIONS BY NATURE Technical Cooperation Division

  47. APPLICATIONS BY DEPOSIT CLASSES Technical Cooperation Division Class 9 : Scientific, nautical, surveying, electric, photographic, cinematographic, optical, weighing, measuring, signalling, checking , life-saving and teaching apparatus and instruments; calculating machines; cash registers, data processing equipment and computers; .... Class 42 : Providing of food and drink; temporary accommodation; medical, hygienic and beauty care; veterinary and agricultural services; ... Class 16 : Paper, cardboard and goods made from these materials, printed matter; bookbinding material; photographs; artists materials; ...

  48. FEES (1998) 1 ECU=1.19192 US $ (26 October 1998) g/s = goods and services

  49. INFORMATION AVAILABLE FOR THE PUBLIC • Community Trade Mark Bulletin - on paper - on CD-ROM • Official Journal of the Office • Annual Activity Report • Internet: http://oami.eu.int