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Supporting ISEF Quality Science Fair Projects

Supporting ISEF Quality Science Fair Projects

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Supporting ISEF Quality Science Fair Projects

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  1. Supporting ISEF Quality Science Fair Projects October 16, 2008 Reno Nevada

  2. Welcome and Instructions Objectives for Today’s Workshop • Share Strategies to Engage Students in Science • Gain Understanding of ISEF Rules, Regulations and Tools • Engage in Science Teaching and Learning Discussions

  3. Overview • Inspiring Students • Posing Testable Questions • What is an ISEF Quality Project? • LUNCH 12-1pm • ISEF Rules and Regulations • Logistics for Today • Schedule and Requirements for the Regional Fairs • Additional Resources for ISEF • Reflections and Other Questions

  4. Topic question Find an adult sponsor, CHECKLIST FOR ADULT SPONSOR (1) APPROVAL FORM (1B) RESEARCH PLAN, STUDENT CHECKLIST (1A) Background research, development of a hypothesis and initial procedures and protocol Will you conduct your research in a laboratory or other regulated institute? (1C) REGULATED RESEARCH INSTITUTIONAL INDUSTRIAL SETTING Is your project a continuation? Continuation Projects Form (7) Does your project involve? Human Subjects (4) IRB approval (2) Qualified Scientist Form Hazardous Chemicals, Activities, or Devices (3) Risk Assessment Form DEA-Controlled Substances (2) Qualified Scientist Form Vertebrate Animals (5A OR 5B) (2) Qualified Scientist Form Will research be at a Regulated Research Institution? Potentially Hazardous Biological Agents (6A AND/OR 6B) (2) Qualified Scientist IF NO (5A) Requires SRC approval IF fresh/frozen tissue, primary cell cultures, blood, blood products or body fluids (6B AND 6A) IF microorganisms, rDNA, fresh/frozen tissues, blood or body fluids (6A) IF YES (5B) Requires IACUC approval

  5. Inspiring Students • Creating an Environment for Science • Creating an Engaging Science Classroom • Providing Science-Like Instruction • Creating Opportunities for Students to Design and Perform Experiments • Establishing a Value for Science Investigations

  6. Science Talk and Argument

  7. Making Thinking VisibleTalk and Argument

  8. Science-Like Instruction • Engaging Science Classrooms • Science-Like Instruction – Less is More Examples • Vitamin C Lab • Evidence • Describe an activity from your instruction that is “science-like.” • How could you modify it to make it more science-like?

  9. Inspiring Students • Creating time for class science discussions • “Talk and Argument” as a class norm • Individual interviews and conversations • Balance guidance, motivation, and student centered investigations • Engaging students with scientists and community science and technology resources

  10. Inspiring Students • Helping them find investigations that are interesting. • Providing opportunities for science discussions in the classroom. • Creating rich environments and resources for science learning. • Valuing and using science as a process of obtaining knowledge based upon observable evidence.

  11. Interviewing for Ideas • Interview the teacher sitting next to you for the purpose of identifying areas of science interests that have potential for an investigation. • What sorts of things interest you in general? • What is it about science you like? • Have you ever wondered about a phenomena or something related to science? • What do you find interesting about that? • How could we investigate more about __________? • ????

  12. Examples of Online Sources for Ideas • Soil Protocol • http://www.all-science-fair-projects.com/science_fair_projects/38/838/2a76331318ca295d545f16c093831473.html • Lettuce Protocol • http://ei.cornell .edu/toxicology/bioassays/lettuce/default.asp

  13. Inspiring Students - Summary • Create an engaging science classroom • Provide science-like instruction • Conduct labs that lead to science investigations • Create opportunities for students to design and perform experiments • Establish a value for science investigations

  14. Testable Questions • Posing Testable Questions • Plausible questions for students to investigate • Timeline considerations • Resource availability

  15. Formulate Testable Questions • Wind turbines have a braking system that engages at high wind speed to keep the windmill from spinning too fast and tearing itself apart. This is a waste of energy. • Pose a testable question from your previous discussion about topics of interest in science with the person next to you.

  16. Testable Questions • Drinking-water sources sampled in Park City, Utah contain elevated levels of arsenic, a known carcinogen. Levels were found as high as 50 ug/L were found in selected water sources, this is just below the current (2003) EPA standard for arsenic in drinking water. Water samples from Silver Creek, also in Park City have zinc concentrations that exceed the aquatic life standard of 388 ug/L. Elevated concentrations of zinc can kill fish by limiting oxygen uptake by the gills.

  17. Testable Questions • Attributes of testable questions

  18. What is an ISEF Quality Project? • Research done by student to investigate a science question. • Testable science question is pursued. • Good literature review specific to the question. • Procedures are consistent with the literature. • Data is analyzed and statistically investigated. • Findings are consistent with observations and data. • Abstract is clear and fully explains the nature and implications of the investigation. • Appropriate procedures are followed and all forms are completed properly. • Student presents work clearly and accurately.

  19. How to Use the Literature Background Research is the Key to a Good Science Fair Project

  20. Why Background Research is Necessary • Building on existing research is part of the nature of science. • Regardless of the science question, somewhere someone has done a similar investigation; this is a good thing. • Use previous research to know what to expect with your project • Others’ research helps you: • develop valid, in-depth questions and hypothesis • use established procedures • gain insight into the analysis and interpretation of data • draw warranted inferences from your findings

  21. To Wiki or Not to Wiki? • While Wikipedia is NOT a valid source, it is a good place to start looking for sources of information. • For example you may want to know something about jumping spiders... • When you access "Wiki" you will see what has been posted on jumping spiders; including a useful article. • If you know little about your topic, Wikipedia may be a good source of general information. If you already know about your topic, go to the references list at the bottom of the articles.

  22. Picking a Specific Topic After reading Wikipedia on the topic, try to formulate a more focused area within the topic. For instance:The vision of jumping spiders seems interesting to me.There is now a narrow enough topic to develop a question. When looking for research, it is often helpful to know what you are looking for—this will reduce the time, and frustration needed to find useful information.

  23. What is the Range of a Jumping Spider’s Vision? • This question is specific enough to direct the research. • Looking over the article there is some general information, but there is not specific information on how to test the range of vision. • We will need to be creative to come up with possible procedures, but will they be scientifically sound? • There is only one way to find out...

  24. Become Sophisticated!Use the Literature to Help • Using the literature sometimes feels like you are cheating, but science is built upon the work of others. • There is probably an established procedure for whatever you would like to investigate. • Research articles provide the procedures used in others’ research. • The procedures are similar to a recipe that can be adapted to your questions. • Science literature is a pool of knowledge from which any scientist can draw, use it—there’s no point in inventing a cookie recipe if one exists on the chocolate chip bag!

  25. Science Says What it Means Start by skimming over the titles of the references; these titles may seem overwhelming, but just look for key words. • "Learning and discrimination of colored papers in jumping spiders" • "Spectral sensitivity in jumping spiders “ • "Vision and prey-catching strategies in jumping spiders“ • "'Eight-legged cats' and how they see - a review of recent research on jumping spiders These look promising!

  26. Dissecting the Literature Looking at the titles helps; however, more is needed to obtain the article. Let’s pick a particular reference apart.Forster, L.M. (1982). Vision and prey-catching strategies in jumping spiders. American Scientist 70:165-175.

  27. References are set up with their own address system • Forster, L.M. This is the author. Often you can search by this author and find other helpful articles. • (1982). This is the date the article was published, it is an important number for finding the article. • Vision and prey-catching strategies in jumping spiders. Here is the title. • American Scientist This is the journal where the article is published. You will need the volume/edition get the correct one.70: This is the specific volume. 165-175. These are pages in the journal where you’ll find the article

  28. Becoming a Scholar • Once you have found a number of articles specific to your topic, go look them up! • A good library should have some scientific journals. Some of the article may be found online. • A very good source of online science journals is Google Scholar. It works just like Google, but has the advantage of access to online academic journals.

  29. Organizing Your Information • Now that you have found some articles, read them. This is a slow process, but will serve you well throughout the project. • Read with a highlighter and notebook at hand. • Note specific information that would be useful to your project, paying attention to: • important methods (especially things NOT to do) • how/why the information helps you • variables others selected to modify and why • how others’ research differs or is the same as yours

  30. In Conclusion • While finding, reading, and compiling literature can be a slow, sometimes frustrating process, it greatly enhances the quality of science projects. • It reduces unexpected problems you may encounter and helps you analyze collected data. • Research greatly enhances the credibility and improves the overall quality of your project. • You can receive help from teachers, librarians, the internet, and even professors at a local university or college to find and analyze science research in the area of your project .

  31. Statistical Analysis of Data • What does it all mean? • Sample size • Consistency of results • Effect size • Proper analysis

  32. DOES CARBONATION AFFECT WHETHER YOU WIN OR LOSE?Athletic coaches often encourage their athletes to avoid the intake of carbonated beverages. This study was to evaluate the impact which the consumption of carbonation has upon the respiration and heart rates of athletes: specifically, distance runners. TI CBL systems and calculators, respiration belts, and gas sensors were used to evaluate respiration rates of each runner. Each of the twelve runners was instructed on the conditions of the three-week test, and agreed to comply. Respiration and heart rates were evaluated once after a week of no carbonated beverages, again a week later after consumption of a one liter Sprite® each day, and a third time, after yet another week without any carbonation. During the test, results for respiration rate were taken every 15 seconds, while heart rate was taken every minute. Data from the three weeks was compared and contrasted. From these results the conclusion was made that carbonated beverages on average, slightly increases respiration rate. The results also showed that carbonation seems to increase the heart rate of females and decrease the heart rate of males.

  33. AN INVESTIGATION OF FEEDING AND NESTING BEHAVIOR AS INDICATORS OF RELATIVE METABOLIC RATE IN PHIDIPPUS SP. The established procedure for determining standard metabolic rate (SMR) is complex and laboratory dependent. This study investigated nesting and feeding behaviors of jumping spiders at two temperatures to determine if these could be used in the field as indicators of relative metabolic rate. Phidippus sp. were collected in northern Utah during October 2002, and kept at two temperatures: 10 C and 20 C. Because spiders are poikilotherms cold temperature lowers metabolic rate, allowing for comparison of behaviors reflecting metabolic rate. Variables observed as indicators of metabolic rate were (a) presence of a nest, (b) relative size of the nest, (c) thickness of the nest, (d) lapse-time between introduction of prey and consumption (consumption time), and (e) number of waste excretions. Using rubrics to assess variables, data were collected cumulatively during a cycle. Feeding, observation, and data collection cycles lasted for 7-10 days. At the beginning of each new cycle, all containers were thoroughly cleaned to remove nest silk and waste. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficients (alpha= 0.05). Statistically significant correlations were found for group assignment to consumption time (r=0.941) and group assignment to average waste excretions (r=0.861), suggesting these variables were indicators of metabolic rate. Nesting variables were significantly correlated to one another, but not significantly correlated to group assignment, indicating that nesting does not reflect metabolic rate. Further research using established laboratory methods for SMR are needed to define a scaled relationship between consumption time and waste excretion and SMR for use in fieldwork.

  34. What is an ISEF Quality Abstract • The project is judged by the abstract • Where can you find ISEF abstracts? • http://www.societyforscience.org/isef/absonline/ • Let’s look at a few abstracts

  35. Science Fair Abstracts • A science fair abstract is an abbreviated report or a summary in brief of the entire project and is of great importance. It states the essential components of the project. The science fair abstract, in clear language, outlines the entire project. The abstract has a limit of 250 words. • Science fair abstracts help judges determine if they want to read the full report. If one wants the jury and audience to be excited about one’s science fair project, then writing an accurate, exciting, and engaging abstract is critical. • Projects at ISEF are prejudged based on the abstract.

  36. Science Fair Abstracts The science fair abstract should include the following components - • Introduction—project’s purpose statement • Problem Statement—hypothesis • Procedure—description of variables and method of investigation • Results—specific data and synopsis of the results • Conclusion—stated clearly

  37. Science Fair Abstracts Given below is an outline to write a science project abstract: • Title • Introduction • Problem statement and the hypothesis • Methodology • Analysis of data • Conclusion • Application

  38. Abstract Don’ts While writing an abstract avoid the following – • Uncommon scientific terms most scientists are not aware of • Brand names • Abbreviations and short forms • Charts and tables • Acknowledgements • Colloquial language • Humor • Writing in first person

  39. THE ISOLATION OF ANTIBIOTIC-LIKE PROTEINS FROM INSECT LARVAE OF MUSCA DOMESTICA, HOUSEFLY MAGGOTS, AND THREE OTHER SPECIES OF INSECTS The purpose of our experiment was to examine the secretions from domestic housefly larvae, maggots, Musca domestica, and three other species of insects for antimicrobial antibiotic production. We had observed fly larvae in dead animal flesh and wondered how they could survive in the bacterial rich decomposing flesh and not be killed. We hypothesized that insect larvae, maggots or grubs, produce and secrete antibiotic-like substances that kill bacteria in the dead tissue in which the insect larvae grow, protecting the insect larvae from bacterial attack.In this study, we used housefly larvae or maggots (Musca domestica), mealworm grubs (Tenebrio), fruit fly larvae (Drosophila melanogaster), and superworms (Zophobas morio). Fourteen different types of bacteria were streaked on agar plates. Secretions from the insect larvae cuticle were collected on sterile filter paper discs, placed on the inoculated petri plates, and incubated. Zones of bacterial inhibition were observed and measured. Results showed that housefly larvae, mealwom grubs, and fruit fly larvae, produced and secreted from their cuticle an antibiotic like substance that inhibited several species of soil bacteria. Further characterization using denaturation by heat showed that the secreted antibiotic-like substance to be a protein. Our research showed that insect larvae produce and secrete antibiotic-like proteins from their cuticles to protect the insect larvae from bacterial attack in the soil or rotting animal flesh in which the insect eggs were laid. These antibiotic-like proteins could possibly be of therapeutic value in the treatment of human infections as a new source of antibiotics.

  40. PHOTOCATALYTIC REDUCTION OF HEAVY METALS: METHODOLOGY AND EFFICACY OF AN APPARATUSHeavy metal contamination from mining or industrial waste threatens aquatic systems. The process of using titanium dioxide as a photocatalyst has been previously established, however a process using a low-cost, feasible apparatus that did not introduce chemicals to the aquatic system was still needed. This project focused on the design, assembly, and use of an apparatus that used affixed titanium dioxide on a substrate with exposure to ultraviolet light (UV) to reduce water contaminated with copper II ions.The apparatus involves a laminar flow of water over a titanium dioxide coated substrate, with recirculation to maximize exposure to the catalyst and UV light. Several substrates and adhesives were used to find the most effective combination. In addition, variables of the apparatus such as flow rate and flow volume were adjusted to maximize ion reduction. The most effective substrate and flow characteristics yielded results sufficient to reduce the threat to aquatic organisms. In trials lasting 4 hours, copper II ions were reduced from 5.99 ppm to 1.80 ppm. The control trials, involving UV exposure without titanium dioxide, reduced ions from concentrations of 6.23 ppm to 5.86 ppm as measured by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The apparatus and methodology established in this project have potential as a solution to water contamination from light industry. The apparatus is small, inexpensive, and does not introduce additional chemicals to the system due to the affixed titanium dioxide.

  41. LUNACY THE AFFECTS OF THE FULL MOON ON HUMAN BEHAVIOR The purpose of my science fair project is to prove that human behavior is affected by the full moon's gravitational pull. To complete this project, I first interviewed public safety personnel to see if there was a common belief that the full moon affected behavior. I then asked each department contacted for information or data on crime/incidents for the year 2002. I gathered data from the Price City Police Department, Carbon County Sheriff's Office, Price City Fire Department and the Price Communications Center. Information was also gathered from back issues of The Sun Advocate, our local newspaper. I counted the incidents from each department, including jail bookings into the Carbon County Jail, for the dates of the full moon in the year 2002. I used from sundown to sunrise the next day as my frame of reference. This information was then charted. I chose the same period of time on the third and fourth day of each month as my control date and charted this information. The number of incidents for the full moon and the control date were averaged and these numbers were compared. The results for all departments show a noticeable increase of incidents on the night of a full moon. All data and averages prove my hypothesis correct. The majority of individuals interviewed stated that they believed that the full moon affects behavior. My data also indicates that their observations were correct.

  42. ISEF Site for Abstract Information ISEF site for writing abstracts http://www.societyforscience.org/isef/teachers/abstract.asp ISEF site for past abstracts http://www.societyforscience.org/isef/absonline/

  43. Resources Online • Publishers • http://go.hrw.com/resources/go_sc/hst/HSTGP221.PDF • http://www.scifair.org/ • ISEF – Society for Science & the Public • http://www.societyforscience.org/isef/index.asp • Fairs in other states • http://community.weber.edu/sciencefair/

  44. Lunch

  45. Logistics for Today

  46. Topic question Find an adult sponsor, CHECKLIST FOR ADULT SPONSOR (1) APPROVAL FORM (1B) RESEARCH PLAN, STUDENT CHECKLIST (1A) Background research, development of a hypothesis and initial procedures and protocol Will you conduct your research in a laboratory or other regulated institute? (1C) REGULATED RESEARCH INSTITUTIONAL INDUSTRIAL SETTING Is your project a continuation? Continuation Projects Form (7) Does your project involve? Human Subjects (4) IRB approval (2) Qualified Scientist Form Hazardous Chemicals, Activities, or Devices (3) Risk Assessment Form DEA-Controlled Substances (2) Qualified Scientist Form Vertebrate Animals (5A OR 5B) (2) Qualified Scientist Form Will research be at a Regulated Research Institution? Potentially Hazardous Biological Agents (6A AND/OR 6B) (2) Qualified Scientist IF NO (5A) Requires SRC approval IF fresh/frozen tissue, primary cell cultures, blood, blood products or body fluids (6B AND 6A) IF microorganisms, rDNA, fresh/frozen tissues, blood or body fluids (6A) IF YES (5B) Requires IACUC approval

  47. Rules and Regulations for ISEF ISEF Rules and Regulations http://www.societyforscience.org/isef/document/index.asp http://www.societyforscience.org/isef/about/rules_regulations.asp Rules Wizard http://www.societyforscience.org/isef/students/wizard/index.asp SRC Applications Due December 1 http://www.societyforscience.org-isef-about SRC%20Nomination08_int_v1.pdf

  48. PREPARING FOR ISEF A brief guide to the forms and regulations of ISEF projects

  49. Intel ISEF 2007, Albuquerque, NM on the day of public visitation