ECE 495 - INTEGRATED SYSTEMS I Lecture - Introduction to the Course and Overview of the Engineering Design Process
Timothy Burg • Michelin R&D • Classes • Senior Design • Nonlinear Systems • Intro to EE • Research • Unmanned Aerial Vehicles • Tissue Engineering • Haptics
Design Example - Camera Flash • Design 1 • Mounted in a disposable camera • Few parts, simple • Larger than Design 2 • Design 2 • More parts than Design 1 • More sophisticated components • More features (red-eye reduction) • Mounted in a “good quality” camera • Some components are exactly the same • Capacitor same in both • Both perform well in the intended application. Which is the better design ?
Design Example – Camera Flash • Each application will have a unique set of needs: • Cost • Size • Weight • Speed • Quality (accuracy, resolution, repeatability) • …. The best design is the one that meets the customer needs.
Design Example – Camera Flash • Customer needs may be contradictory Reset Time Four proposed designs, none are “perfect” for the customer needs. Safety Cost Light Intensity Size Best design is the one that provides the best compromise between the customer needs. Reliability http://peltiertech.com/WordPress/spider-chart-alternatives/
ECE495 Course Rationale • What is the purpose of 495? • Gain confidence in integrating the technical skills you have developed to this point in your career to synthesize solutions to new classes of problems. • Practice core skills that define expectations of a “professional” engineer that “Graduates at graduation will have”
Course Rationale – Practice Professional Communication Slide Assessing Condition of Heat Shields (Partially Blamed for crash of Columbia Space Shuttle) The message you likely get from this slide The message you need from this slide Foam damaged wing
Course Rationale – Work on a Team “Intelligent people, when assembled into an organization, will tend toward collective stupidity.” “The Power of Minds at Work: Organizational Intelligence in Action” by Karl Albrecht Graphic from karlalbrecht.com/downloads/AlbrechtsLaw.ppt “Becoming skilled at doing more with others may be the single most important thing you can do” Christopher Avery
Note on ECE 495 Team Composition • Take the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) test to provide some insight about your own personality • The test only attempts to measure “preferences” not ability. • ~2 million/year take this test • Many other tests available • How do you function on a team? • What should people know about your Type? • What should you know about their Type?
Note on ECE 495 Team Selection Lawyer Computer Programmer Artist Social Worker Electrical Engineer
Half-life of technical information Course Rationale – Appreciate the Need to Engage in Need for Lifelong Learning Basic theoretical knowledge– language, mathematics, logic, reasoning, theoretical parts of professional training Knowledge Applied knowledge - Industrial processes, software use, specific technical and professional skills, Time Acquisition Depreciation Skills and knowledge decline -> Need to Continue Learning http://www.knight-moore.com/pubs/halflife.html
Following a disciplined process is likely to yield better results. Course Rationale –Design a System Given Constraints Resource Applied “Build Early” “Think Early” Production Start New Idea
Course Rationale - Knowledge of Contemporary Issues • Why Amazon Can't Make A Kindle In the USA • Industries lost to the US • Fabless chips; advanced rechargeable batteries for hybrid vehicles; crystalline and polycrystalline silicon solar cells • Does it matter? • Loss of manufacturing sets off a chain reaction: • loss process-engineering • loss advanced research • loss next-generation process/products • loss infrastructure • loss of ability to innovate • Does it matter to you in your job as an engineer? • You will make or be affected by decisions on outsourcing
Course Rationale - Understanding Ethical Responsibility http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boston_molasses_disaster • Boston Molasses Disaster occurred in 1919 • Molasses tank burst killing 21 and injuring 150 • Arthur Jell who oversaw the construction, neglected basic safety tests • Company ignored warnings (the tank leaked so badly that it was painted brown to hide the leaks) • Company paid at least $6.6 million (in 2005 dollars) Engineers make important decisions and have an obligation to protect workers, public, .. Lead to requirement for formal credentials, professional licensure in the US
Course Rationale - Understanding Ethical Responsibility “My spiritual pain is unbearable. I keep having the same unsolved question: if my rifle took away people's lives, then can it be that I... am guilty for people's deaths, even if they were enemies?” Mikhail Kalashnikov, designer of the AK-47 assault rifle
Course Rationale - Understand the Impact of Engineering Solutions • Understand the impact of engineering solutions in a global, economic, environmental, and societal context Have you planned for the full life cycle of your product ?
ECE495 Course Rationale – Understand Standards and Regulations • Mac Pro was banned from sale in Europe, March 1, 2013 – January 2014. • Electrical port and fan guard designs that violated an amended European Union regulation IEC 60950-1. • Requirements on computer manufactures to put fan guards and extra shielding around electrical ports in place.
Course Rationale – Design a System • An ability to design a system, component, or process to meet desired needs. http://www.space.com/13763-x37b-sercret-air-force-space-plane-record-time.html
You will follow these steps in your design this semester. Generic Design Process Identify Need Retire Research Maintain Requirements Use by Customer(s) Concepts Distribute and Sell Design Manufacture Prototype Testing
Generic Design Process Identify Need: Who is willing to pay for the project ? Identify Need Retire Research Maintain Requirements Use by Customer(s) Concepts Distribute and Sell Design Manufacture Prototype Testing
Generic Design Process Identify Need Research: Become an Expert Retire Research Maintain Requirements Use by Customer(s) Concepts Distribute and Sell Design Manufacture Prototype Testing
Generic Design Process Identify Need Requirements Specifications: What must the product do and how well must it do it? Retire Research Maintain Requirements Use by Customer(s) Concepts Distribute and Sell Design Manufacture Prototype Testing
Generic Design Process Concept Generation: What are different ways to solve the problem? Identify Need Retire Research Maintain Requirements Use by Customer(s) Concepts Distribute and Sell Design Manufacture Prototype Testing
Generic Design Process Identify Need Design: Develop a technical solution Retire Research Maintain Requirements Use by Customer(s) Concepts Distribute and Sell Design Manufacture Prototype Testing
Generic Design Process Identify Need Retire Research Maintain Specifications Prototype: Demonstrate design Use by Customer(s) Concepts You will follow the design process during the semester to build a prototype of a system that meets a customer need. Distribute and Sell Design Manufacture Prototype Testing
Generic Design Process Identify Need Retire Research The design process is not linear and may require iteration on previous steps. Maintain Requirements Use by Customer(s) Concepts Distribute and Sell Design Manufacture Prototype Testing
Generic Design Process Identify Need Retire Research Maintain Requirements Cradle to Grave Engineering is the phrase applied to designing for all phases in a product’s life. Use by Customer(s) Concepts Distribute and Sell Design Manufacture Prototype Testing
Overview of class, syllabus and schedule • Class Structure • Lecture at 4:40 on topic that supports a component of the current project • 5:30 is an opportunity to answer specific questions about upcoming projects. • You work with your team to complete projects • Schedule is up to you (there is no assigned laboratory times). You have full access to your assigned laboratory workbench in a room in the basement of Riggs. • Keypad access to Riggs 12,19: 1495# • Keypad access to Riggs 19: 31452 • Some components are supplied: motors, cameras, amplifiers • Groups must supply or purchase smaller components that are specific to their design – wood, transistors, acrylic • TAs will be available to answer implementation questions
How Will We Meet all of The Course Goals? Build an Intelligent System Lab 3 Actuators System Controller User Interface Software Hardware Algorithms Lab 1 Sensors Lab 2 Lab 5 Lab 6 Lab 4 Richard Boyd Lockheed Martin : F35 is basically open-source but when they add the hard-disk (software) it becomes export controlled.
Sources of Information • Blackboard • Grades • Team assignments • Door code • Surveys • Course Website (http://www.clemson.edu/ces/crb/ece495/index.htm) • Assignments • Syllabus and Schedule • Instruction Manuals • Sample Code and Tutorials
Overview of Class, Syllabus and Schedule • Overall grade: • (75%) 6 Team projects and website • (10%) Individual assignments (Quizzes, Essays) • (15%)Teamwork assessment (Peer evaluation) • Projects: • Competition Day on SATURDAY of week given in schedule • Questions: Read project materials, Matlab Help file, Email TA
Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) System Can’t model all of the subsystems to build a complete simulation Convert D/A, Buffer Input Signals Computer simulation of a system containing connected subsystem models A complex physical subsystem that can’t be effectively modeled Convert A/D, Buffer Input Signals Simulated Physical HIL Simulation is a hybrid simulation that incorporates real components
Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) System Example HIL Card Car State Signals (speed, driver command) Anti-Lock Brake Module A complex physical system that can’t be effectively modeled Braking Signals Computer simulation of a car including vehicle dynamics, tire models, driver models, etc. Need hardware and software To determine which ABS module would be best without actually building a car and testing each different module, simulate the car’s dynamics, test different controllers, and analyze simulated response of the car to real ABS braking signals.
Open-loop Control System • Open-loop control: • Input designed to move the system to a desired state based on current conditions and model of the system. • Example: Fill a water tank to a specified level based on flow-rate and time. • If some of the water evaporates during filling then the level will be wrong • If flow rate is not exactly as expected then the level will be wrong. • Inaccurate time will lead to the wrong level No correction for errors Desired level Actual level
Closed-Loop Control System • Closed-loop control: • Input changes as the error, difference between the desired output and the measured output, changes. • Example – fill a tank to a specified level based on measuring the tank level and turning flow “on” or “off” to reach the desired level. • Anything that prevents the tank from being filled to the desired level will be compensated. Error = Desired Level – Measured Desired level = Actual level + Desired level Output Input System _ Feedback Measurement
Real-time (RT) System Computer-based execution of a program loop: Speed and predictability of execution times distinguish RT and non-RT systems τ, response time output input Instructions or algorithm System Real-time system: the correctness of the system behavior depends not only on the logical results of the computations, but also on the physical instant at which these results are produced. http://www.ece.cmu.edu/~koopman/des_s99/real_time/
Closed-Loop Control as a RT, HIL Simulation HIL Card Motor Voltage Amplifier Control Algorithm (like you are learning in ECE409) Motor Position (encoder) Simulated Physical If you were using closed-loop control on the position of the motor, you would want the motor to stop at a certain shaft angle.
Implementing Closed-Loop Control as a RT, HIL Simulation in ECE495 Simulation System Input Output + _ A/D,D/A, Buffer • Target PC • xPC OS from Mathworks • Q4 HIL Board Feedback
Implementing Closed-Loop Control as a RT, HIL Simulation in ECE495 • Host • MATLAB with Simulink • C++ • Programming Interface to Target PC • User Interface • Execute High-level Programs • Target PC • xPC OS from Mathworks • Q4 HIL Board System Input Output + _ Feedback
Implementing Closed-Loop Control as a RT, HIL Simulation in ECE495 MATLAB/SIMULINK have a toolbox called xPC Target
Implementing Closed-Loop Control as a RT, HIL Simulation in ECE495 Workflow Target Computer Host Computer Boot CD installs a real-time kernel on target Design a Simulink model on the host PC Build the Simulink model • Host and target coordinate for downloading programs • Program is downloaded to target for real-time execution • Some parameters can be changed on host. This change is communicated to target.
Implementing Closed-Loop Control as a RT, HIL Simulation in ECE495 Quanser Q4 card in the Target PC Terminal board • 4 x 14 bit Analog Inputs • 4 x 12 bit D/A Outputs • 4 Quadrature Encoder Inputs • 16 Programmable Digital IO Channels • 2 x 32 bit dedicated Counter/ Timers • 2 External Interrupt sources • 32 bit, 33MHz PCI Bus Interface
Implementing Closed-Loop Control as a RT, HIL Simulation in ECE495 Q4 Terminal Board From Q4 board Analog Out (D/A) Channels Analog In (A/D) Channels Digital I/O Ports Encoder Channels Ext Interrupt and Signal Pins (PWM,Watchdog)
MATLAB is a huge collection of C/C++ libraries for system prototyping and hardware interfacing. No need to reinvent the wheel! Would you rather spend weeks writing device drivers and libraries for the Q4 than test your system in a few hours? Prototyping ideas is easy and fast. Visualization of data is easy. Why MATLAB/SIMULINK over C++?
Summary • ECE 495 focuses on practicing engineering skills • Work in teams to implement a solution to meet a customer need • Practice following the steps of a design process • Grade based on how well your team executes.