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Non-discrimination

Non-discrimination

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Non-discrimination

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  1. Non-discrimination

  2. 1. Definitions • Prohibition of discrimination (negative approximation)  requirement of equal treatment • Encouragement of equal opportunity  „positive discrimination”

  3. 2. Principled sources • Theological: equality before God • Secular: fundamental principle of just society – norm of Kant of equal human dignity being due to everybody Classical liberal democracy: equality before law = arbitrary non-discrimination + principle of negative freedom (Mill)  prevention of injury of other people Rawls: The theory of justness – existent social differences fair equal opportunity – not unconditionally Unjust  2 fundamental elements of justness: * certain people less for prosperity of other people = unjustness * greater preference of certain people, improvement of conditions of poor people = not unjust

  4. 3. Non-discrimination as special right • Independent right • Measure of enforcement of other rights  procedural requirement Forbidden classification: race, gender, nationality, ethnicity, religion, political opinion, social ground, origins, color, sexual orientation, age + „any other grounds” (which individual cannot influence  classical case of discrimination) Deviation from the prohibition need to be verified – tests: • Reasonable differentation standing on objective basic: if there isn’t any fundamental rights (earlier pension of miners)  rationality test • Medium-strict examination: discrimination betwen genders, positive discrimination  important state interest • The strictest test: forcing state interest  „suspicious reasons”: race, ethinicity

  5. 4. Its appearance 4.1. Mode of manifestation • Direct • Indirect (parttime) • Victimization – causing agonies 4.2. Legal documents • National: French Declaration, US Constitution (Lincoln: 13. prohibition of slavery, 14. due process, 14. general suffrage) • International: UN Charter, Universal Declaration, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, ECHR Article 14 (accessorial right) + Additional Protocol 12, EU directives (2000/43, 78)

  6. 4.3. The Hungarian Constitution Article 70/A para. (1) general egalitarian formula: race, color, gender, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origins, financial situation, birth or on any other grounds not only citizens, but legal entity too, not only fundamental rights  Decision 61/1992 AB for the whole legal system Article 70/A para. (2) The law shall provide for strict punishment  Criminal Code, Civil Code, Labour Code, act on administrative procedure, act on consumer protection + Act CXXV of 2003 on equal treatment and encouragement of equal opportunity  Decision 45/2000 AB Article 70/A para. (3) measures for equal opportunity – positive discrimination is not unconstitutional (Decision 9/1990 AB) Other provisions: Articles 9 (property), 54 (dignity), 56 (legal capacity), 57 (court), 66 (man-woman), 70/B (labour), 70/I (general and proportionate sharing of taxation), 71 (suffrage) Test of MKAB: • Discrimination concerning fundamental right  necessity-proportionality test (stricter) • Concerning non-fundamental right  rationality test (Criminal Code Article 199)

  7. 5. Special fields 5.1. Discrimination on the basis of race International: • UN- 1965: All types of racial discrimination • Council of Europe - ECRI • EU - 2000/43 National • US SC - Dred Scott (1856): Plessy v. Fergusson (1896): „separate but equal”; Brown (1954): debarring of black citizenship; if separate, inherently unequal; Bakke (1978) • Hungary: Case of Góman/Tiszavasvári/Patvarc

  8. 5.2. Discrimination on the basis of gender International • UN Convenants + prohibition of discrimination against women • Council of Europe: Article 14 + Additional Protocol 7 + Social Charter • EU – labour of equal value ; ECJ:Kalanke: qouta system not, Marschall: individual quality yes; Charter of Fundamental Rights Article 23 National • US v. Virginia (1996) – military school: the strictest measure • Hungary: Decision 10/1990 AB – widow’s pension, Decision 46/1994 - women’s conscription, against men, too: Decision 7/1998 AB pension advantage to weaver; Municipial Court of Monor - Case of Profi

  9. 5.3. Discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation International • Council of Europe the last several decades: Article 8 – privacy  age limit of consent, army, placement of children, but adoption not • EU - directive 2000/78/EC expressly National • US - Bowers v. Hardwick (1986) • Hungary: Decision 14/1995 AB, Decision 21/1996 AB, Decision 20/1999 AB, Decision 37/2002AB rationality test + Sziget v. Tarlós

  10. 5.4. Positive discrimination International • UN: women and men • Council of Europe: nothing • EU: encouragement (see Case of Marschall) National • US: affirmative action: „inverse discrimination” on the basis of racism vs. „color-blind fundamentalism” • Hungary: unequality before the law (Heller, Gombár) Decision 9/1990 AB, but in case of fundamental rights not! Plan of Ministry of Education about entrance examination Act on non-discrimination – Drittwirkung * direct discrimination from point a) to t); indirect; persecution; illegal separation; reprisal * giving preference * authority: from 01. 02. 2005

  11. Thank you for your attention!