Outcomes: • 3.5 explain and describe the development and difficulties of slave culture economically, politically, socially, and spiritually in North America and Caribbean • 3.6 examine how people of African descent used various means to resist enslavement through cultural expression, i.e., music and slave insurrections, religion, folktales and writing
Concepts to think about… • What is culture? • How does every culture express itself? What does every culture have in common? • Why would it be in the best interest of the slave owners to keep their slaves without power?
The Daily Grind of a Slave • Given enough to eat • Provided shelter • Could get access to better if job was in the main house • Could often be sold without warning • Not uncommon for the master to father children with the slaves who would then become slaves • Crop work long and dangerous including poisonous animals like snakes • Brutal punishments like whipping, withholding of food, locking in cages with no access to food or water, tied to a tree in the sun… • Day started early and ended late • Work decided by a quota – punishments if they were not met
The Daily Grind of a Colonial • Houses made of brick or stone • Small farmers lived mostly hand to mouth with help from neighbours • Plantation owners were rich and lived mostly for recreation • Church meetings like picnics or socials were major events • Clothing depended on your level of society and was often colourful and decorated with flowers or ribbons on Sundays • Long work days but plenty of recreational opportunities for the average person
How could a slave get freedom? • freed by their owners to honor a pledge, to grant a reward, or, before the 1700s, to fulfill a servitude agreement • bought by Quakers, Methodists, and religious activists for the sole purpose of freeing them (a practice soon banned in the southern states) • ran away to free territory • "self-purchase“ • purchasing their own relatives.
Slave culture - YouTube • Who’s interests were served by slavery? • What link do you see in the “lopsided balance of power”? • Give evidence for a link between economic power, social power (power to make social change), and political power with marginalization. • How do you see the mixing of African and Colonial traditions? • What was one form of ultimate power that slave owners had that was alluded to at the end of the clip?
Review the article and complete the questions: Slave Religion
Expression of Culture • Slaves were not permitted to read and write • Teaching a slave to read or write was against the law • Passing down of stories or warnings was through oral tradition, songs and art • From one generation to the next subtle changes
Expressions of culture • Food – Spiced, melons, corn, fished and hunted, usually not given enough • Clothing – Made from what they were given, traded through the plantations among slaves • Religion – mixtures of African and Christianity • Art – Decorated what they could use like pipe bowls, functional art and told stories – quilts hidden in plain view
Slave Music • Different Kinds of Music • Different occasions • Few instruments • Often required few people • Often told a story • 3 main kinds: Work, Worship, Recreation • Cornfield Holler – YouTube (Work Song) • “It makes a long time man feel bad" & "Prison Blues" – YouTube (Work Song) • Do Lord Remember Me Mississippi John Hurt – YouTube (Worship) • Amazing Grace - Wintley Phipps – YouTube (Worship) • Paul Robeson - Shortenin bread :) - YouTube(Recreation) • go to sleep little baby (a cappella ~ harmony) – YouTube (Recreation)
Slave Song Book? • HISTORY DETECTIVES | Slave Songbook | PBS - YouTube • What would make this a very important find? • How important was music in slave culture? • How do we know?
Discussion Groups • In groups of 4 discuss the concept given. Make sure you appoint a recorder to write down at least three points you discussed and at least one more question you would have. • Discussion Topics: • Discuss the concept of a slave culture that is different from colonial culture • Consider how the slave culture evolved as a different culture from the colonial settlers • Discuss why it would be in the best interest of a colonial culture to marginalize slaves and their children • Discuss the combination of African traditions and religions with Christianity • Discuss the link between religious ties and conditions of slavery • Discuss the unique importance of folklore and oral traditions, including music to a non-literate and repressed group of people